Vasile Stancu

New Testament Greek for Beginners

(Based on the book with the same title by Gresham Machen, The MacMillan Company, 1923)


Future and First Aorist Active and Middle of Liquid Verbs
Future of εἰμί
Reflexive Pronouns

325. Vocabulary

ἀλλήλων reciprocal pron., of each other, of one another
ἀποθανοῦμαι I shall die, dep. fut. of ἀποθνήσκω
ἀποκτενῶ, ἀπέκτεινα fut. and aor. of ἀποκτείνω, I kill
ἀποστειλῶ, ἀπέστειλα fut. and aor. of ἀποστέλλω, I send
ἀρῶ, ἦρα fut. and aor. of αἴρω, I take up, I take away
βαλῶ I shall throw, I shall cast, fut. of βάλλω
ἑαυτοῦ, ῆς, οῦ reflexive pron., of himself
ἐγερῶ, ἦγειρα fut. and aor. of ἐγείρω, I raise up
ἐμαυτοῦ, ῆς, οῦ reflexive pron., of myself
ἐπί prep, with gen., over, on, at the time of; with dat., on, on the basis of, at; with acc., on, to, against (επί is an exceedingly common, but a rather difficult, preposition. Its various uses must be learned by observation in reading)
ἔσομαι I shall be, fut. of εἰμί
μενῶ, ἔμεινα fut. and aor. of μένω, I remain
μετανοέω I repent
σεαυτοῦ, ῆς reflexive pron., of thyself
σπείρω, σπερῶ, ἔσπειρα, -, -, ἐσπάρην I sow
φοβέομαι dep. with passive forms, I am afraid, I fear, I am afraid of

326. Liquid verbs are verbs whose stems end in λ, μ, ν, or ρ, these consonants being called liquids.

327. The Future of Liquid Verbs

The future active and middle of liquid verbs is formed, not by adding -σο/ε, as is the case with other verbs, but by adding -εο/ε, to the verb stem. The ε contracts with the following variable vowel, in accordance with the rules of contraction given in the preceding lesson. Thus the future active and middle of liquid verbs is conjugated exactly like the present of verbs in -εω.

328. The future active indicative of κρίνω, I judge, is as follows:


329. It will be observed that the only way in which the future active indicative in the three persons of the singular and in the third person plural is distinguished (in appearance) from the present active indicative of κρίνω is by the accent.

330. The future middle indicative of κρίνω is as follows:


331. It will be remembered (see XIII §157) that the verb stem is often disguised in the present system. Thus the future of a liquid verb is often distinguished from the present by something more than the addition of the e.

Example: The future of βάλλω is βαλῶ, βαλ- and not βαλλ- being the verb stem. Even κρινῶ really differs from the present κρίνω in that the ι is short in the future and long in the present. But even that distinction does not prevail in the case of μένω.

332. Some verbs have liquid stems in the future but not in other tenses.

Example: The future of λέγω is ἐρῶ.

The First Aorist of Liquid Verbs

333. The first aorist active and middle of liquid verbs is formed not by adding -σα to the verb stem but by adding alone and making changes within the body of the word, the verb stem usually being lengthened (ε lengthened not to η but to ει). The conjugation, in all the moods, is like the conjugation of other first aorists.



334. Of course liquid verbs may have second aorists or irregular aorists. So the aorist of βάλλω is a second aorist ἔβαλον. Some verbs, moreover, may have a present stem ending in a liquid, and yet not be liquid verbs. Thus λαμβάνω is not a liquid verb, the verb stem being λαβ-. The student is reminded again that one cannot always predict what the various tense systems of a Greek verb will be. The lexicon must be consulted.

335. Future Indicative of εἰμί

The future indicative of εἰμί, I am, is as follows:


It will be observed that the conjugation is just like that of the future middle of λύω, except that in the third person singular the variable vowel is omitted, ἔσται standing instead of ἔσεται.

336. The English Preparatory Use of "There"

The word there is sometimes put before the verb in an English sentence without any special force except as an indication that the subject is to follow the verb. This "preparatory" there is not translated at all in Greek.

Examples: (1) χαρὰ ἕσται ἐν οὐρανῷ, there shall be joy in heaven. (2) ἦσαν μαθηταὶ ἐν τῷ οἴκῷ, there were disciples in the house.

Declension of Reflexive Pronouns

337. The declension of ἐμαυτοῦ, -ῆς, of myself, the reflexive pronoun of the first person, is as follows:

sg pl
m f m f
G ἐμαυτοῦ ἐμαυτῆς ἑαυτῶν ἑαυτῶν
D ἐμαυτῷ ἐμαυτῇ ἑαυτοῖς ἑαυταῖς
A ἐμαυτόν ἐμαυτήν ἑαυτούς ἑαυτάς

338. The declension of σεαυτοῦ, -ῆς, of thyself, the reflexive pronoun of the second person, is as follows:

sg pl
m f m f
G σεαυτοῦ σεαυτῆς ἑαυτῶν ἑαυτῶν
D σεαυτῷ σεαυτῇ ἑαυτοῖς ἑαυταῖς
A σεαυτόν σεαυτήν ἑαυτούς ἑαυτάς

339. The declension of ἑαυτοῦ, -ῆς, -οῦ, of himself, of herself, of itself, the reflexive pronoun of the third person, is as follows:

sg pl
m f n m f n
G ἑαυτοῦ ἑαυτῆς ἑαυτοῦ ἑαυτῶν ἑαυτῶν ἑαυτῶν
D ἑυτῷ ἑαυτῇ ἑυτῷ ἑαυτοῖς ἑαυταῖς ἑαυτοῖς
A ἑαυτὸν ἑαυτὴν ἑαυτό ἑαυτούς ἑαυτάς ἑαυτά

340. It will be observed that the declension of the reflexive pronouns is like that of αὐτός, except that there is no nominative case and in the reflexive pronouns of the first and second persons no neuter gender.

341. In the plural, ἑαυτῶν, which originally belonged only to the pronoun ἑαυτοῦ of the third person, is made to do duty for all three persons.

342. Use of Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are pronouns that refer back to the subject of the clause.

Examples: (1) οὐ λαλῶ περὶ ἐμαυτοῦ, I do not speak concerning myself; (2) οὐ δοξάζεις σεαυτόν, thou dost not glorify thyself; (3) οὐκ ἐχει ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτῷ, he has not life in himself; (4) δοξάζετε ἑαυτούς, ye glorify yourselves.

343. Reciprocal Pronoun

The reciprocal pronoun is ἀλλήλων, of one another, of each other. It occurs in the New Testament only in the forms ἀλλήλων, of one another, ἀλλήλοις to or for one another, and ἀλλήλους, one another (βλέπουσυν ἀλλήλους, they see one another).

344. Exercises


1. οὐ γὰρ ἑαυτοὺς κηρύσσομεν ἀλλὰ Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν κύριον, ἑαυτοὺς δὲ δούλους ὑμῶν διὰ Ἰησοῦν.
2. ὁ ἐγείρας τὸν κύριον Ἰησοῦν ἐγερεῖ καἰ ἡμᾶς σὺν Ἰησοῦ.
3. εἶπεν ὁ μαθητὴς ὅτι ἀποθανεῖται ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ.
4. οὐκ ἐγεροῦμεν αὐτοὶ ἑαυτούς, ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἐγερεῖ ἡμᾶς ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ.
5. εὐθὺς ἦρεν ὁ πονηρὸς τὸ παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν σπαρέν.
6. ἐὰν ἀγαπᾶτε ἀλλήλους, ἔσεσθε μαθηταὶ τοῦ ἀποθανόντος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν.
7. ἐὰν πιστεύσητε εἰς τὸν Ἰησοῦν, μετ' αὐτοῦ μενεῖτε εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.
8. ὁ ἀγαπῶν τὸν υἱὸν ἀγαπᾷ καὶ τὸν ἀποστείλαντα αὐτόν.
9. χαρὰ ἔσται ἐπὶ τῷ ἁμαρτωλῷ τῷ ἐπὶ τῷ ῥήματι τοῦ Ἰησοῦ μετανοήσαντι.
10. οἱ ἀποκτείναντες τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ διώξαντες τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἐκβαλοῦσι καὶ ἡμᾶς.
11. ἐπιστρέψαντες οὗτοι ἐπὶ τὸν θεὸν ἔμειναν ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ αὐτοῦ.
12. ἐγείραντος τοῦ θεοῦ τοὺς νεκροὺς ἐσόμεθα σὺν τῷ κυρίῳ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.
13. οὐκ εἰς ἐμαυτὸν ἐπίστευσα, ἀλλ' εἰς τὸν κύριον.
14. ἔξεστιν ἡμῖν λαβεῖν δῶρα ἀπ' ἀλλήλων, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἀποκτεῖναι οὐδὲ διώξαι ἀλλήλους.
15. οὗτος μέν ἐστιν ὁ ἄρχων ὁ ἀποκτεῖνας τοὺς προφήτας, ἐκεῖνος δέ ἐστιν ὁ ἁμαρτωλὸς ὁ μετανοήσας ἐπὶ τῷ ῥήματι τοῦ Ἰησοῦ.
16. ἐὰν δὲ τοῦτο εἴπωμεν κατ' αὐτοῦ, φοβούμεθα τοὺς ὄχλους, λέγουσι γὰρ εἶναι αὐτὸν προφήτην.
17. ἀποστελεῖ πρὸς αὐτοὺς διδασκάλους καὶ προφήτας, ἵνα μετανοήσωσιν καὶ φοβῶνται τὸν θεόν.
18. μακάριοί εἰσιν οὐχ οἱ ἑαυτοὺς δοξάζοντες ἀλλ' οἱ δοξάζοντες τὸν ἀποστείλαντα τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν κόσμον.
19. ἐρχομένου πρὸς αὐτοὺς τοῦ Ἰησοῦ περιπατοῦντος ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης ἐφοβοῦντο οἱ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν μαθηταί.
20. ταῦτα ἐροῦμεν τοῖς ἀποστελεῖσι πρὸς ἡμᾶς προφήταις.


1. When Jesus has taken away our sins we shall be holy for ever.
2. Let us not begin to say (*1) in ourselves that we do not know Him.

(*1) With αρχομαι, I begin, the present infinitive, not the aorist infinitive, should be used.

3. We shall not fear the ruler who killed the prophets, for God will send His angels to us.
4. When the soldiers had killed Jesus our Lord, we were afraid and went away from Him.
5. He said that it was not necessary for us to see each other.
6. If ye persecute and kill those who are being sent to you, ye shall no longer be the people of God.
7. The multitudes went away, but those who remained said that He had the words of life.
8. When Jesus had spoken these things and had sent His disciples into the villages of Galilee, the Pharisees were afraid of the people.
9. Having killed Jesus they will cast out of their synagogues those who have believed on Him.
10. The apostle himself did not save himself, but God was the One who saved him.
11. When the Lord had spoken this parable, those rulers said that they would kill those who had been sent by Him.
12. Unless Jesus himself sends us we shall not be disciples of Him.
13. Unless ye repent ye will remain in sin forever.
14. He who said this word to the One who sent the apostles will say the same word also to those who have been sent by Him.
15. Those good disciples, having loved those who were following Jesus, will love also those who follow His apostles.
16. Those who saw Him as He was walking in Galilee will behold Him in heaven for ever.