Vasile Stancu

New Testament Greek for Beginners

(Based on the book with the same title by Gresham Machen, The MacMillan Company, 1923)


Demonstrative Pronouns
Further Uses of αὐτός

101. Vocabulary

ἀγάπη, ἡ love
ἁμαρτία, ἡ a sin, sin
βαπτίζω I baptize
διδάσκαλος, ὁ a teacher
ἐκεῖνος, -η, -ο pron., that
ἐπαγγελία, ἡ a promise
εὐαγγέλιον, τό a gospel
κρίνω I judge
νῦν adv., now
οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο pron., this
οὗτως adv., thus, so
πονηρός, -ά, -όν evil
πρόσωπον, τό a face
χαρά, ἡ joy

102. The declension of οὗτος, this, is as follows:


The puzzling variations between ου and αυ in the first syllable of this word may be fixed in the memory if it be observed that an ο-vowel (in the diphthong ου) stands in the first syllable where an ο-vowel (ο or the long of it, ω) stands in the second syllable, and an α-vowel (in the diphthong αυ) stands in the first syllable where an α-vowel (α or the closely related vowel η) stands in the second syllable.

103. The declension of ἐκεῖνος, that, is like the declension of adjectives in -ος, -η, -ον, except that ἐκεῖνο stands instead of ἐκεῖνον in the nominative and accusative singular neuter.

104. Use of οὗτος and ἐκεῖνος

1. οὗτος and ἐκεῖνος are frequently used with nouns. When they are so used, the noun with which they are used has the article, and they themselves stand in the predicate, not in the attributive, position (see §§68-74).

this word, οὗτος ὁ λόγος (or ὁ λόγος οὗτος)
that word, ἐκεῖνος ὁ λόγος (or ὁ λόγος ἐκεῖνος)
I see this church, βλέπω ταύτην τὴν ἐκκλησίαν (or βλέπω τὴν ἐκκλησίαν ταύτην)
these words, οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι (or οἱ λόγοι οὗτοι)
those words, ἐκεῖνοι οἱ λόγοι (or οἱ λόγοι ἐκεῖνοι)
this good word, οὖτος ὁ καλὸς λόγος (or ὁ καλὸς λόγος οὗτος)

2. οὗτος and ἐκεῖνος are frequently used by themselves, without nouns.

Examples: οὗτος, this man (or this person); αὕτη, this woman; τοῦτο, this thing; οὗτος, these men; αὖται, these women; ταῦτα these things.

105. Further Uses of αὐτός

In addition to its use as a personal pronoun of the third person, αὐτός is also used as follows:

1. It has an intensive use with nouns. When so used it stands in the predicate position.

αὐτὸς ὁ ἀπόστολος or ὁ ἀπόστολος αὐτός, the apostle himself
αὐτὴ ἡ ἐκκλησία or ἡ ἐκκλησία αὐτή, the church itself
αὐτὸ τὸ δῶρον or τὸ δῶρον αὐτό, the gift itself.

2. It is often used with nouns to mean same. When so used it stands in the attributive position.

ὁ αὐτὸς ἀπόστολος or ὁ ἀπόστολος ὁ αὐτός, the same apostle
ἡ αὐτὴ ἐκκλησία or ἡ ἐκκλησία ἡ αὐτή, the same church, etc.

3. In its intensive use it often goes with pronouns or with the unexpressed subject of a verb.

αὐτὸς ἐγὼ λέγω or αὐτὸς λέγω, I myself say
αὐτὸς σὺ λέγεις or αὐτὸς λέγεις, thou thyself sayest
αὐτὸς λέγει, he himself says
αὐτὴ λέγει, she herself says
αὐτὸ λέγει, it itself says
αὐτοὶ ἡμεῖς λέγομεν or αὐτοὶ λέγομεν, we ourselves say
αὐτοὶ ὑμεῖς λέγετε or αὐτοὶ λέγετε, ye yourselves say
αὐτοὶ λέγουσι, they themselves say

106. The principal uses of adjectives and of the pronouns studied thus far may be reviewed as follows:

ὁ καλὸς λόγοςthe good word
ὁ λόγος ὁ καλός
καλὸς ὁ λόγοςthe word is good
ὁ λόγος καλός
οὗτος ὁ λόγοςthis word
ὁ λόγος οὗτος
ἐκεῖνος ὁ λόγοςthat word
ὁ λόγος ἐκεῖνος
αὐτὸς ὁ λόγοςthe word itself
ὁ λόγος αὐτός
ὁ αὐτὸς λόγοςthe same word
ὁ λόγος ὁ αὐτός
ὁ λόγος μουmy word
ὁ λόγος αὐτοῦhis word
βλέπω αὐτόνI see him
βλέπω τοῦτονI see this man
βλέπω ταῦταI see these things

107. Exercises


1. οὗτοι οἱ διδάσκαλοι κρίνουσιν αὐτὸν τὸν ἀπόστολον.
2. ὁ δὲ αὐτὸς διδάσκαλος ἔχει τὴν αὐτὴν χαρὰν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ.
3. νῦν λαμβάνω αὐτὸς τὸ αὐτὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου μου.
4. οὗτος βλέπει ἐκεῖνον καὶ κρίνει αὐτόν.
5. μετὰ ταῦτα ἔχετε αὐτοὶ τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ κυρίου ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν.
6. οὗτοι ἔχουσι χαράν, ἐκεῖνοι δὲ ἔχουσιν ἁμαρτίαν.
7. αὕτη δέ ἐστιν ἡ φωνῆ τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ.
8. οὗτως γινώσκομεν τοῦτον καὶ βλέπομεν τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ.
9. λαμβάνομεν ταῦτα τὰ δῶρα ἀπὸ αὐτοῦ καὶ βλέπομεν αὐτόν.
10. αὐτὸς βαπτίζεις ἐκεῖνον καὶ εἶ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ.
11. εἰς τὴν αὐτὴν ἐκκλησίαν ἄγομεν τούτους τοὺς διδασκάλους ἡμῶν τοὺς ἀγαθούς.
12. αὐτὸς ἐγὼ ἔχω ταύτην τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ κυρίου μου.
13. αὕτη βλέπει τὸ πρόσωπον τοῦ κρίου αὐτῆς.
14. αὕτη γινώσκει αὐτὴν τὴν ἀλήθειαν.
15. ἀγαθή ἐστιν ἡ ἐπαγγελία σου καὶ ἀγαθὴ εἶ αὐτή.
16. ἐκεῖνοί ἐστιν μαθηταὶ τοῦ αὐτοῦ διδασκάλου.
17. οὗτός ἐστιν διδάσκαλος ἐκεῖνου, ἐκεῖνος δὲ τούτου.
18. οὗτος διδάσκει τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς καὶ αὐτός ἐστιν ἀγαθός.
19. μετὰ τὰς ἡμέρας ἐκείνας διδάσκαλοί ἐσμεν τούτων τῶν δούλων.
20. μετὰ τῶν πιστῶν ἔχομεν ἐπαγγελίας ἀγαθάς, οἱ δὲ πονηροὶ βλέπουσιν ἡμέρας κακάς.


1. These churches know the Lord Himself.
2. The same disciples know Him and see His face.
3. Those teachers judge the same churches and lead them into the same joy.
4. We ourselves have this sin in our hearts.
5. This is the love of our God.
6. These are the faithful churches of our Lord.
7. The apostle himself baptizes his brothers and leads them to thee.
8. Through this gospel we have life.
9. On account of these teachers we see death.
10. He Himself knows us and from Him we receive this promise.
11. On account of the same gospel we ourselves send these apostles to you.
12. Into this world he sends the Lord Himself.
13. I see this man and the brethren see him.
14. Now we are baptizing those disciples of our Lord and are sending the same disciples into the desert.
15. My disciples know my voice and bring these things to me.
16. Through these things we bring the same gospel into the same world.
17. We are disciples of the Lord, but ye are disciples of the evil one.
18. This sin leads our children into death.
19. The sins of these churches are leading other men into the same sins.
20. His disciples have this sin in their hearts and are teaching men so.
21. I know the sins of the disciples and the disciples themselves.