Vasile Stancu

New Testament Greek for Beginners

(Based on the book with the same title by Gresham Machen, The MacMillan Company, 1923)


Aorist Passive Indicative
Future Passive Indicative

196. Vocabulary

ἀναλαμβάνω I take up
ἐβλήθην I was thrown, I was cast, aor. pass, of βάλλω
ἐγενήθην I became, aor., pass. in form, of γίνομαι
ἐγνώσθην I was known, aor. pass, of γινώσκω
ἐδιδάχθην I was taught, aor. pass, of διδάσκω
ἐκηρύχθην I was preached, I was proclaimed, aor. pass. of κησύσσω
ἐλήμφθην I was taken, aor. pass, of λαμβάνω
ἐπορεύθην I went aor., passive in form, of πορεύομαι
ἠγέρθην I was raised, aor. pass. of ἐγείρω
ἠκούσθην I was heard, aor. pass. of ἀκούω
ἠνέχθην I was borne, I was brought, aor. pass. of φέρω
ἤχθην I was led, aor. pass. of ἄγω
ὤφθην I was seen, aor. pass. of βλέπω (may also be regarded as aor. pass. of ὁράω)

197. The aorist passive indicative and the future passive indicative are formed on the aorist passive stem, which appears in the sixth place among the principal parts. The fourth and fifth of the principal parts will be studied in a subsequent lesson.

198. The aorist passive stem is formed by adding θε to the verb stem. This θε is lengthened throughout the indicative to θη. Thus the aorist passive stem of λύω appears as λύθη-.

199. The aorist being a secondary tense, the augment, formed exactly as in the case of the imperfect (see §124-126), is prefixed to the tense stem, and the secondary personal endings are added. These personal endings are of the active form (see §127), and are like those which are used in the imperfect active indicative except that in the third person plural the alternative ending -σαν is chosen instead of -V. In the aorist passive indicative, the personal endings are added directly to the tense stem, without any variable vowel intervening.

200. The future passive indicative is formed by adding σο/ε to the aorist passive stem (with its θε lengthened to θη), which, however, since the future is a primary not a secondary tense, has in the future no augment. To this future passive stem, λυθησο/ε, the middle primary endings are added, and the future passive is conjugated exactly like the future middle except that the stem is λυθησο/ε instead of λύσο/ε.

201. The aorist passive indicative of λύω is as follows:

1ἐλύθην I was loosed ἐλύθημεν we were loosed
2ἐλύθης thou wast loosed ἐλύθητε ye were loosed
3ἐλύθη he was loosed ἐλύθησαν they were loosed

202. The future passive indicative of λύω is as follows:

1λυθήσομαι I shall be loosed λυθησόμεθα we shall be loosed
2λυθήσῃ thou wilt be loosed λυθήσεσθε ye will be loosed
3λυθήσεται he will be loosed λυθήσονται they will he loosed

203. The uses of the parts of the verb which have been studied so far may be summarized as follows:

Present Indicative

Active: λύω, I loose / I am loosing
Middle: λύομαι, I loose for myself / I am loosing for myself
Passive: λύομαι , I am being loosed

Imperfect Indicative

Active: ἔλυον, I was loosing
Middle: ἐλυόμην, I was loosing for myself
Passive: ἐλυόμην , Ι was being loosed

Future Indicative

Active: λύσω, I shall loose
Middle: λύσομαι, I shall loose for myself
Passive: λυθήσομαι, I shall be loosed

Aorist Indicative

Active: ἔλυσα, I loosed
Middle: ἐλυσάμην, I loosed for myself
Passive: ἐλύθην, I was loosed

Formation of Aorist Passive Stems of Verbs Whose Verb Stems End in a Consonant

204. Before the θ of the aorist passive tense-suffix, a final π or β of the verb stem is changed to φ, a final κ or γ is changed to χ, and a final τ, δ, or θ is changed to σ. The changes in the case of π, β, κ, γ can be remembered if it be observed that θ is equivalent to th and that what the changes amount to is adding on an h to the preceding letters so as to make them conform to the th. Thus before th, p or b becomes ph, and k or g becomes ch.

Examples: The aorist passive of πέμπω is ἐπέμθην; of ἄγω, ἤχθην; of πείθω, ἐπείσθην.

205. Like the other principal parts, however, the aorist passive of a Greek verb cannot be formed with any certainty on the basis of general rules, but must be noted for each verb separately.

206. Second Aorist Passive

Some verbs have a second aorist passive instead of a first aorist passive. This second aorist passive is conjugated in the indicative exactly like a first aorist passive. But it has no θ in the tense stem.

Example: The second aorist passive indicative of γράφω is ἐγράφην, ἐγράφης, ἐγράφη, ἐγράφημεν, ἐγράφητε, ἐγράφησαν.

Aorist and Future of Deponent Verbs

207. Some deponent verbs have passive, not middle, forms.

Example: The aorist of ἀποκρίνομαι, I answer, is ἀπεκρίθην, I answered. (But occasionally ἀποκρίνομαι has middle forms).

208. Some deponent verbs have both middle and passive forms.

Example: The aorist of γίνομαι, I become, is either ἐγενόμην, I became, or ἐγενήθην, I became. ἐγενόμην and ἐγενήθην mean exactly the same thing, both the middle and the passive forms having active meaning.

209. Exercises



1. ἐπιστεύσαμεν εἰς τὸν κύριον καὶ ἐγνώσθημεν ὑπ' αὐτοῦ.
2. ταῦτα ἐγράφη ἐν τοῖς βιβλίοις.
3. ἐδιδάξατε τὰ τέκνα, ἐδιδάχθητε δὲ αὐτοὶ ὐπὸ τοῦ κυρίου.
4. ἐλήμφθησαν οἱ πιστοὶ εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν, ἐξεβλήθησαν δὲ ἐξ αὐτοῦ οἱ ἄγγελοι οἱ πονηροί.
5. ἐγερθήσονται οἱ νεκροὶ τῷ λόγῳ τοῦ κυρίου.
6. οἱ τυφλοὶ συνήχθησαν εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν.
7. ἐξεβλήθη τὰ δαιμόνια· ὁ γὰρ κύριος ἐξέβαλεν αὐτά.
8. πέμπονται μὲν καὶ νῦν οἱ μαθηταί, ἐπέμφθησαν δὲ τότε οἱ ἀπόστολοι καὶ πεμφθήσονται ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι.
9. εἰσῆλθες εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν καὶ ἐβαπτίσθης.
10. ἐπιστεύθη ἐν κόσμῳ (*1) ἀνελήμφθη ἐν δόξῃ.

(*1) The article is often omitted with κόσμος. See §311.

11. οἱ ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἐσώθησαν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ καὶ ἐγενήθησαν μαθηταὶ τοῦ κυρίου.
12. ἐπορεύθημεν εἰς ἕτερον τόπον· οὐ γὰρ δέξονται ἡμᾶς οὗτοι.
13. ἐδοξάσθη ὁ θεὸς ὑπὸ τοῦ υἱοῦ, ἐδόξασε δὲ αὐτὸν.
14. τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἐκηρύχθη ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις, κηρυχθήσεται δὲ καὶ νῦν.
15. ἑτοιμασθήσεται ἡμῖν τόπος ἐν οὐρανῷ κατὰ τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ κυρίου.
16. τὰ τέκνα προσηνέχθησαν τῷ κυρίῳ.
17. εἶδον οὗτοι τὸ πρόσωπον τοῦ κυρίου καὶ ἤκουσαν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ.
18. ἐν τῷ μικρῷ οἴκῳ ἀκουσθήσεται ἡ φωνὴ τοῦ ἀποστόλου.
19. πρῶτός εἰμι τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν, ἐσώθην δὲ καὶ ἐγώ.
20. ὀψόμεθα μὲν τοὺς ἀγγέλους, ὀφθησόμεθα δὲ καὶ ὑπ' αὐτῶν.


1. This is the Church of God, but the sinners were brought into it.
2. This man was cast out on account of the gospel.
3. I was sent to the sinners, but you were being sent to your brothers.
4. Thou didst not receive the gospel, but the others received it and were saved.
5. These words have been written by the apostles.
6. The servants will come into the house, but the sons were baptized in that hour.
7. Ye will see the Lord in heaven, but the apostles were taught by Him.
8. The disciples brought the blind men to the Lord, but the children were led by others.
9. The gifts were being received from the servants, but the law was proclaimed to the world.
10. A place was prepared for the brethren.
11. We went to the sea, but our sons will go into the temple.
12. After these things, they were taken up into glory.
13. The Son of Man was raised up from the dead (*2) and was glorified.

(*2) From the dead, ἐκ νεκρῶν.

14. The promises of God were heard in the world.