Vasile Stancu

New Testament Greek for Beginners

(Based on the book with the same title by Gresham Machen, The MacMillan Company, 1923)


Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative
Singular Verb with Neuter Plural Subject
Uses of καὶ and οὐδέ

136. Vocabulary

ἀπέρχομαιdep., I go away
βιβλίον, τό a book
δαιμόνιον, τό a demon
δέχομαιdep., I receive
ἐκπορεύομαιdep., I go out
ἔργον, τό a work
ἔτιadv., still, yet
θάλασσα, ἡ a lake, a sea
καὶconj., and, also, even; καὶ ... καὶ, both ... and
κατέρχομαιdep., I go down
οὐδέconj., and not, nor, not even; οὐδέ ... οὐδέ, neither ... nor
οὔπωadv., not yet
περίprep. with gen., concerning, about; with acc., around
πλοῖον, τό a boat
συνέρχομαιdep., I come together
ὑπέρprep. with gen., in behalf of; with acc., above

137. As in the present tense, so also in the imperfect, the middle and passive voices are alike in form.

138. The imperfect middle indicative of λύω is as follows:

1ἐλυόμηνI was loosing for myselfἐλυόμεθαwe were loosing for ourselves
2ἐλύου thou wast loosing for thyselfἐλύεσθεye were loosing for yourselves
3ἐλύετοhe was loosing for himselfἐλύοντοthey were loosing for themeseves

139. The personal endings in the middle of the secondary tenses are as follows:


140. The variable vowel, as in the active of the imperfect, and in all three voices of the present, is ο before μ and ν and ε before other letters.

141. In the second person singular, ἐλύου is a shortened form for an original ἐλύεσο.

142. Great care should be taken to pronounce clearly both the long vowel in the ultima of the form ἐλυόμην and the accent on the penult.

143. The imperfect passive indicative of λύω is as follows:

1ἐλυόμηνI was being loosedἐλυόμεθαwe were being loosed
2ἐλύου thou wast being loosedἐλύεσθεye were being loosed
3ἐλύετοhe was being loosedἐλύοντοthey were being loosed

144. Verbs which are deponent in the present are also deponent in the imperfect.

Example: The imperfect indicative of ἔρχομαι, I come, is ἠρχόμην, I was coming.

145. The Neuter Plural Subject

A neuter plural subject may have its verb in the singular.

τὰ δαιμόνια ἐξέρχεται, the demons go out
ταῦτά ἐστι τὰ καλὰ δῶρα, these are the good gifts

This strange idiom, however, is by no means invariable in New Testament Greek; the neuter plural subject often has its verb in the plural like any other plural verb.

Example: τὰ τέκνα σώζονται, the children are being saved

Uses of καὶ and οὐδέ

146. The simple connective use of καὶ, where it means and, has already been studied. But καὶ has other uses. Frequently it means also or even. When it is thus used, it stands before the word with which it is logically connected. In the case of also, the English order is the reverse of the Greek order; in the case of even, it is the same as the Greek order.

τοῦτο δὲ καὶ ἐγὼ λέγω, but this I also say
γινώσκουσι καὶ τὰ τέκνα τὸν νόμον, even the children know the law

147. οὐδέ, like καὶ, is often simply connective and means and not or nor. But like καὶ it has other uses. It often means not even.

τοῦτο δὲ οὐ λέγω ἐγὼ οὐδὲ λέγουσιν αὐτὸ οἱ ἄλλοι, but this I do not say, nor do the others say it (simple connective use of οὐδέ)
τὴν δόξαν τοῦ θεοῦ βλέπουσιν οὐδὲ οἱ μαθηταί, not even the disciples see the glory of God

148. Finally, καὶ... καὶ and οὐδέ... οὐδέ are used correlatively, and mean, respectively, both. . . and, and neither...nor.

τοῦτο λέγουσιν καὶ οἱ ἀπόστολοι καὶ οἱ δοῦλοι, both the apostles and the servants say this
τοῦτο λέγουσιν οὐδὲ οἱ ἀπόστολοι οὐδὲ οἱ δοῦλοι, neither the apostles nor the servants say this

149. Exercises


1. ἐγράφοντο οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι ἐν τῷ βιβλίῷ.
2. ἐδιδασκόμην ὑπ' αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῶν βιβλίων τῶν προφητῶν.
3. ἐν ἐκεῖναις ταῖς ἡμέραις καὶ ἐδιδασκόμεθα ὑπ' αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐδιδάσκομεν τοὺς ἄλλους, ἀλλὰ νῦν οὐδὲ διδασκόμεθα οὐδὲ διδάσκομεν.
4. ἀπήρχοντο οἱ ἁμαρτωλοὶ πρὸς τὴν θάλασσαν.
5. ἐξεπορεύετο πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ ἐκκλησία, ἀλλὰ νῦν οὐκέτι ἐκπορεύεται.
6. οὔπω βλέπομεν τὸν κύριον ἐν τῇ δόξῃ αὐτοῦ, ἀλλὰ ἐδιδασκόμεθα ὑπ' αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταῖς κακαῖς.
7. ἐλέγετο ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ καλὸς λόγος περὶ τούτου τοῦ ἀποστόλου.
8. περὶ αὐτὸν ἐβλέπετο ἡ δόξα αὐτοῦ.
9. ἐφέρετο τὰ δῶρα καὶ πρὸς τοὺς πονηρούς.
10. ἐδέχου τὰ βιβλία ἀπὸ τῶν προφητῶν.
11. συνήρχοντο οἱ μαθηταὶ πρὸς τοῦτον.
12. τὰ ἔργα τοῦ πονηροῦ πονηρά ἐστιν.
13. οὐδὲ αὐτὸς πονηρὸς οὐδὲ τὰ ἔργα πονηρά.
14. ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐκκλησίας αὐτοῦ ἀπέθνησκεν ὁ κύριος.
15. οὐκ ἔστιν μαθητὴς ὑπὲρ τὸν διδάσκαλον αὐτοῦ οὐδὲ δοῦλος ὑπὲρ τὸν κύριον αὐτοῦ.
16. ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ ἤγου πρὸς τὸν κύριον διὰ τῆς θαλάσσης.
17. ἐξήρχεσθε ἐκ τῶν οἴκων ὑμῶν.
18. ταῦτα τὰ δαιμόνια ἐξήρχετο διὰ τοῦ λόγου αὐτοῦ.
19. ἠκούοντο καὶ ἤκουον· ἀκούονται καὶ ἀκούουσιν.
20. ἠρχόμην πρὸς τὸν κύριον, ἦγον δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους.


1. Those words were being heard by the same apostle, but now they are no longer being heard.
2. These books were being written by him in behalf of his servants.
3. I was not yet being taught by this man, but I was leading the others to him.
4. Ye are not above me nor am I above you.
5. Thou wast sending others to him and wast being sent by him to others.
6. The demons were going out of the children.
7. Ye were coming in and going out in the church.
8. We were not yet going away to the sinners, but were still hearing the voice of the apostle and were being taught concerning the Lord out of the books of the prophets.
9. They were going down to the sea and were going through it in boats.
10. Neither the evil nor the good were answering the Lord.
11. We were both seeing and hearing these disciples.
12. Thou wast being saved by the word of the Lord.
13. Not by your works but by the Lord were ye being saved from your sins.
14. Not even the good are saved by works.
15. Through the word of the Lord we were becoming good disciples.
16. Thou wast not dying in behalf of him, but he was dying in behalf of thee.