Vasile Stancu

Plato's Crito

Grammatical Notes

Page 056τί: why…?
ἀφῖξαι: ἀφῖκσαι, 2s pf. ἀφικνέομαι
: definite article common throughout the work for vocative, direct address
πάνυ μὲν οὖν: quite certainly; πάνυ γε and μὲν οὖν are both usual affirmatives S2901
βαθύς: late; lit. ‘deep’
τὸ...φοιτᾶν: visiting; articular inf. in acc. sg. modified by διὰ; α-contract infinitive
καί…καὶ: and…also; καί is a conjunction, the second one is an adverb
τι…εὐεργέτηται: has been done some kindness; inner acc. (S1554); pf. pass.
ὑπὸ: by; + gen. agent after passive voice

Personal Pronouns

Singular Plural

1st person
NἐγώI ἡμεῖςwe
Gἐμοῦ, μουmy, of me ἡμῶνour
Dἐμοί, μοιto me ἡμῖνto us
Aμέ, μεme ἡμᾶςus

2nd person
Nσύyou ὑμεῖςyou
Gσοῦ, σουyour, of you ὑμῶνyour, of you
Dσοί, σοιto you ὑμῖνto you
Aσέ, σεyou ὑμᾶςyou

Page 057εἶτα: then; inferential, expressing surprise
ἐπήγειράς: 2s non-sigmatic 1st aor. demonstrative τηλικόσ-δε (S333, 340)
σιγῇ: in silence; dat. of manner (S1527) is, as often, adverbial
μὰ τὸν Δία: by Zeus! ; acc. sg. Ζεύς work for vocative, direct address
ἄν…ἤθελον: I would not wish; ἄν + impf. ind. expresses past potential (S1784-88)
αὐτὸς: intensive pronoun (-self) modifies the understood subject 1s ἐγώ
εἶναι: inf. εἰμί
ἀλλὰ καὶ: but in fact; καὶ is adverbial
σοῦ: partitive gen. obj. of αἰσθανόμενος
θαυμάζω: I have been marvelling; after πάλαι, verb has sense of pf. progressive
ὡς: how…; a relative adverb in an indirect exclamation (cf. an ind. question) (S2686)
ἤγειρον: I did not wake; iterative impf
ἵνα…διάγῃς: pres. subj. of purpose
ὡς: as….as possible; common translation for ὡς + superlative (here adverb)
καὶ: and; conjunction
μὲν δή: in fact; δή strengthens affirmative
καὶ: even; adverb before
τοῦ τρόπου: your disposition
πολὺ...μάλιστα: far the most; πολὺ, ‘far,’ is the adverb of πολύς, ‘many’
παρεστώσῃ: being at hand; fem. pf. pple
ὡς: so…; demonstrative adverb; see. l. 5

Possessive Pronouns

Singular Plural

1st person
ἐμός, -ή, -όν: my, mine, 2 ἡμέτερος, -α, -ον: our, ours, 6

2nd person
σός, -ή, -όν: your, yours, 8 ὑμέτερος, -α, -ον: your, yours, 0

Page 058καὶ γὰρ: for in fact; καὶ is adverbial
ἄν…εἴη: it would be; an + 3s opt. εἰμί is potential optative; inf. is the subject
ὄντα: acc. sg. pres. pple εἰμί
τελευτᾶν: α-contract verb pres. inf.
καὶ ἄλλοι: others too; καὶ is adverbial
οὐδὲν: not at all; adverbial acc. or inner acc.: ‘gives no relief’ demonstrative τηλικόσ-δε (S333, 340)
τὸ...ἀγανακτεῖν: from…; ‘ in respect to…’ articular inf. is likely an acc. of respect
μὴ οὐχὶ: not; double negative with inf. often after a negative main clause (S2742)
οὐχὶ: deictic iota (-ι) adds emphasis
παρούσῃ: (being) present; pple πάρειμι
οὐχὶ: deictic iota suffix (-ι) adds emphasis
ἔστι: are (the case) ; sg. with neut. pl. subj.
τί δὴ: just why…? Why exactly…?; δὴ emphasizes and suggests precision, S2840
ἀφῖξαι: ἀφῖκσαι, 2s pf. ἀφικνέομαι
ἀγγελίαν…χαλεπήν: postponing the adj. adds emphasis and emotion to the reply
φέρων: nom. sg. pres. pple
ἣν: which…; fem. sg. relative
ἐν τοῖς: among those; art. as demon. S1099
βαρύτατα: superlative adverb
ἂν ἐνέγκαιμι: would suffer; potential aor. opt. φέρω ( aor. stem ἐνεγκ)

Personal / Intensive Pronoun / Adjective "same"

masc. fem. neut.

N αὐτός himself αὐτή herself αὐτό itself
G αὐτοῦ his αὐτῆς her αὐτοῦ its
D αὐτῷ to/for him αὐτῇ to/for her αὐτῷ to/for it
A αὐτόν him αὐτήν her αὐτό it

N αὐτοί they αὐταί they αὐτά they
G αὐτῶν their αὐτῶν their αὐτῶν their
D αὐτοῖς to/for them αὐταῖς to/for them αὐτοῖς to/for them
A αὐτούς them αὐτάς them αὐτά them

αὐτός is used 49 times. See page 59 for it’s various uses.

Page 059τίνα ταύτην;: what is this?
ἀφῖκται: 3s pf. ἀφικνέομαι
οὗ…ἀφικομένου: (at) which arriving; gen. absolute (aor. pple); οὗ is a rel. pronoun
τεθνάναι: pf. act. pple θνήκσω
οὔ-τοι δὴ: you know, (it) has not already arrived; not οὗτοι, ‘these;’ δὴ ‘exactly’ may be temporal: ‘already,’ or ‘now’ demonstrative τηλικόσ-δε (S333, 340)
δοκεῖν μὲν μοι: as it seems to me; inf. absolute; the inf. is impersonal
ἐξ ὧν: from which (reports)… ; ‘from (the reports) which…; acc. relative attracted into gen. of missing antecedent
καταλιπόντες: aor. pple κατα-λείπω
αὐτό: it; i.e. πλοῖον
δῆλον…ὅτι: (it is) clear that…; add ἐστί
δὴ: of course, in fact; emphasizes ἀνάγκη
εἰς αὔριον: til tomorrow
ἔσται: 3s fut. εἰμί (dep. ἔσομαι)
ταύτῃ: in this way; dat. of manner
φίλον: (it is) dear; + dat., add ἐστί
ἔστω: let it be; 3s. imperative εἰμί
οἶμαι: οἴομαι, governs ind. discourse
αὐτὸ: (that) it…; acc. subject, i.e. πλοῖον
πόθεν: from where (in the world)?
τεκμαίρῃ: τεκμαίρε(σ)αι, 2s pres. mid

Personal / Intensive Pronoun / Adjective "same"

how to identify example translation

1. Personal Pronoun alone, no article αὐτὰς, αὐτὸν them, him
2. Intensive Pronoun modifies noun αἱ γυναῖκες αὐταὶ the women themselves
3. Adjective “same” following an article αἱ γυναῖκες αἱ αὐταὶ the same women

Page 060ἐρῶ: ἐρέω, treated as the fut. of λέγω
τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ (ἡμέρῃ): on…; dat time when
που: I suppose; (D494)
: than…; following ὑστεραίᾳ ‘later’
: on (that day) ; relative, dat. time when
ἂν ἔλθῃ: comes; ἄν + 3s aor. subj. ἔρχομαι, indefinite temporal clause
φάσι: 3p pres. φημί
γέ τοι δὴ: at any rate; γέ is restrictive and emphasized by τοι δὴ
οἱ…κύριοι: those in authority over these things
ἐπ-ιούσης: the coming; gen. sg fem. pple ἐπ-έρχομαι
ἡμέρας: during…; gen. of time within
οἶμαι: οἶομαι
αὐτὸ: (that) it…; acc. subject, i.e. πλοῖον
τῆς ἑτέρας (ἡμέρας): during…; see above
: which…; neut. acc. relative pronoun
ἑώρακα: 1s pf. ὁράω
ὀλίγον: a little; acc. of extent of degree with comparative adverb πρότερον
πρότερον: comparative adv.
νυκτός: than…; gen. of comparison
κινδυνεύεις: it looks as though you; + inf. ‘you run the risk of not waking…’ aor. inf. ἐγείρω; κινδυνεύω is often translated as ‘probably’ or ‘perhaps’ + inf. as main verb
ἦν: 3s impf. εἰμί
δὴ τί: just what…?; δή lends emphasis
προσελθοῦσα: aor. pple
ἔχουσα: wearing; fem. nom. sg. pple
καλέσαι: aor. inf. governed by ἐδόκει
Page 061ἤματί…ἵκοιο: Homer, Iliad 9.363: ‘ἤματι κε τριτάτῳ Φθίην ἐρίβωλον ἱκοίμην’ spoken by Achilles, who says that he can return home to Phthia from Troy in 3 days
ἤματί…τριτάτῳ: on…; dat time when
ἵκοι(σ)ο: you could arrive; κεν (ἄν) + 2s aor. opt. ἱκνέομαι is potential optative
μὲν οὖν: elsewhere ‘certainly in fact;’ here a corrective: ‘no, rather’ ‘on the contrary’
ὥς γέ: so at least; restrictive in sense
γε: emphasizes the preceding word, much like italics or the stress in oral speech
δαιμόνιε: god-touched; in response to Socrates’ interpretation of the dream emphasized by τοι δὴ
καὶ: even; adverb modifies νῦν
πιθοῦ: aor. imperative πείθω + dat.
σώθητι: aor. pass. imperative σῴζω
ἐὰν…ἀποθάνῃς: if…; present general condition (ἐὰν + aor. subj., pres. ind.)
ἂν ἔλθῃ: comes; ἄν + 3s aor. subj. ἔρχομαι, indefinite temporal clause
τοῦ ἐστερῆσθαι;: from being deprived…; articular inf. (pf. pass. inf. στερέω)
τοιούτου ἐπιτηδείου: from…; separation
οἷον: as…; ‘which sort’ a relative which is a correlative with demosntrative adjective τοιούτου (‘this sort…which sort’ or ‘such…as’); here an accusative predicate
οὐδένα μή ποτε: not ever…anyone; μὴ οὐ + fut. in a generic assertion (S2705g)
ἴσασιν: 3p οἶδα, pf. but pres. in sense
ὡς: since; + pple expresses alleged cause
οἷος τ ᾿ ὤν: being able; ‘being the sort to’
ἂν εἴη: would be; potential 3rd sg. opt. εἰμί
ταύτης: than…; gen. of comparison
Page 062περὶ πλείονος ποιεῖσθαι: consider…of more (importance) ; gen. of value (S1373)
: than; as often following a comparative
πείσονται: fut. pass. (not mid.) πείθω
ὡς: that
αὐτὸς: yourself; intensive following σύ
ἀπιέναι: inf. ἀπ-έρχομαι like italics or the stress in oral speech
ἡμῶν…: (though) we…; gen. absolute is concessive in force
τί: why...?
ἐπιεικέστατοι: best men
ὧν: whose (opinion) ; supply δόξαν
ἄξιον: (it is) worthwhile; supply ἐστί a corrective: ‘no, rather’ ‘on the contrary’
αὐτὰ: that they…; i.e. ‘these matters,’ acc. subject of pf. pass. inf. πράττω; from αὐτός, where we may prefer ταῦτα
ἂν πραχθῇ: 3s aor. pass. subjunctive πράττω; + ἄν indicates a supposed fact in future time (S2545)
ὁρᾷς: ὁράεις, 2s present ὁράω
δὴ: in fact; emphasizes the verb (D215)
αὐτὰ...παρόντα: present affairs themselves are clear that…;
νυνὶ: just now; deictic iota lends emphasis
οἷοί τ ᾿ εἰσὶν: are able; see below
σμικρότατα: superlative adj.

οἷος τε + εἰμί = to be able/possible + epexegetical (explantatory) infinitive

οἷος τ ᾿ ὤν being able (being fit to) 44c1p. 61, 46a2p. 68
οἷοί τ ᾿ εἰσὶν are able (are fit to) 44d2p. 62
οἷοι τ ᾿ εἶναι to be able (are fit to) 44d6, d7, d8p. 63
οἷόν τε (ἐστί) it is possible (it is fit to) 46a7p. 69
οἷοι τέ εἰσὶν are able to (are fit to) 48a11p. 78
οἷοι τ ᾿ ἦσαν were able (were fit to) 48c5p. 80

οἷος can mean ‘fit,’ or ‘sort’ and + inf. translates as ‘able/possible.’ The particle τε is a connective that is untranslatable (2970). This construction is employed eight times in the Crito.

Page 063ἐάν…ᾖ: if…; protasis in a present general condition (ἐάν + subj., present ind.)
διαβεβλημένος ᾖ: periphrastic 3s pf. pass. subjunctive (pf. pass. pple + εἰμί)
εἰ γὰρ ὤφελον: Would that…; + inf.; εἰ γὰρ, here with impf. ὀφείλω, introduces an unattainable wish (S1780); γάρ shows approval of what was said, i.e. ‘yes, for…’
οἷοι τ᾿ εἶναι: to be able; inf. εἰμί
ἵνα οἷοι τ᾿ ἦσαν: that they might have been able (to accomplish) ; ἵνα expresses purpose usually with subj. or opt. but here with past. ind. after an unfulfilled wish showing that the purpose is unfulfilled
καλῶς ἂν εἶχεν: it would be good; ἔχω (holds, is disposed) + adv. is equivalent to ‘to be’ + adj.; ἄν + aor. ind. expresses past (unrealized) potential; adv. καλῶς is often translated as ‘well,’ hence the adj. ‘good’
νῦν δὲ: but as it is; often after contrary-tofact conditions and unfulfilled wishes
οἷοι τε (εἰσὶν ἐργάζεσθαι): supply verbs
δυνατοὶ (εἰσὶν): supply 3p pres. εἰμί
ποιῆσαι: aor. inf.
τοῦτο ὅτι: this...(namely) whatever…
ἂν τύχωσι (ποιοῦντες): ἄν + 3p aor. subj. τυγχάνω, indefinite relative clause; τυγχάνω + pple is translated ‘happen to’
ἐχέτω: let…be; 3s imperative + neut. pl. subject; ; ἔχω (holds, is disposed) + adv. is equivalent to ‘to be’ + adj

Common Translations of ἔχω

ἔχω + infinitive to be able + inf. ἔχωμεν λέγειν p. 70 we are able to say
ἔχω ἀποκρίνασθαι p. 87 I am able to reply
ἔχω λέγειν p. 106 I am able to say
ἔχω + adverb to be + adjective: ‘holds, is disposed’ καλῶς ἂν εἶχεν p. 63 it would be good
οὕτως ἐχέτω p. 63 let…be so
ὧδε ἔχω p. 71 I am so
ὀρθῶς ἔχοντος p. 85 being right
καλῶς ἔχουσιν p. 89 they are good
οὕτως ἔχει p. 90 it is so
Page 064εἰπέ: aor. imperative
ἆρα γε μὴ...: You are not…, are you? ; Smyth (2651) says ἆρα μὴ anticipates a ‘no’ reply (Lat. num) but Denniston (48. 50) claims ἆρα μὴ merely suggests that the affirmative is difficult to accept
προμηθῃ: προμηθε(ε)σαι, 2s pres.
ἐάν…ἐξελθῃς: if…; protasis in a present general condition (ἐάν + aor. subj., ind. )
ὴ...πράγματα παρέχωσιν: lest…make trouble; fearing clause (3p pres. subj.)
ὡς…ἐκκλέψασιν: (on the charge) that…; the sycophants charge; 3p aor.
ἀναγκασθῶμων: aor. pass. subjunctive parallel to παρέχωσιν in fearing clause
ἢ…ἢ…ἢ: either…or…or
ἀποβαλεῖν: aor. inf.
παθεῖν: aor. inf. πάσχω
πρὸς τούτοις: in addition to these things
φοβῇ: φοβε(σ)αι, 2s pres. mid.
ἔασον χαίρειν: dismiss; lit. ‘allow (acc.) to say farewell,’ aor. sg. imperative ἐάω
ἐσμεν: 1p pres. εἰμί
κινδυνεύειν: to run this risk; cognate acc. inf.; epexegetical (explanatory) inf. following δικαιοι
δέῃ: 3s pres subj. δεῖ
μείζω (κίνδυνον): μείζο(ν)α…; acc. sg.
πείθου: sg. mid. imperative
ποίει: ποίεε; sg. act. imperative

Epexegetical (Explanatory) Infinitive
This near equivalent to an acc. of respect limits and clarifies the range of a noun or adjective.

οἷός τ ᾿ ὤν σῴζειν being fit to save p. 61 ἒτοιμοι ἀναλίσκειν ready to spend p. 65
δίκαιοι κινδινεύειν right to risk p. 64 ἐπιθυμία εἰδέναι a desire to know p. 96

Page 065φοβοῦ: φοβε(σ)ο, sg. mid. imperative
τἀργύριον: τὸ ἀργύριον, crasis
: which…; relative, neut. acc. sg. object of nom. pl. aor. pple λαμβάνω
θέλουσι: ἐθέλουσι, 3p pres.
σῶσαι: 1st aor. inf. σῴζω
ἐξαγαγεῖν: 2nd aor. inf. ἐξ-άγω
ὁρᾷς: ὁράεις, 2s α-contract verb
ὡς εὐτελεῖς: how cheap these informers (are) ; proleptic use of συκοφάντας which should come after not before ὡς εὐτελεῖς
οὐδὲν: not at all; inner acc. of δέοι ‘there is no need’ or adverbial acc.
ἂν δέοι: there would be a need; potential opt., δέω governs a gen. of separation
ἐπ᾿ αὐτοὺς: aor. inf. σῴζω
σοὶ: for you; dat. of interest
τι…κηδόμενος: having some care for + gen.; an inner acc.
οἴει: οἴε(σ)αι, 2s pres. mid. οἴομαι
τἀμά: τὰ ἐμά (χρήματα); crasis
οὗτοι: these (friends are) ; Crito is talking about the friends who are not now present
ἀναλίσκειν: epexegetical (explanatory) inf. governed by ἕτοιμοι
κεκόμικεν: 3s pf. κομίζω
ἐπὶ αὐτὸ τοῦτο: for this very (purpose)
ὅπερ λέγω: just as I have been saying; the present is pf. progressive in sense
μήτε…ἀποκάμῃς: prohibitive subj. (μὴ + 2s aor. subj) may be translated ‘don’t tire’ or ‘you should not tire’ + inf.
Page 066σῶσαι: 1st aor. inf. σῴζω
μήτε…γενέσθω: and don’t let it become; negative 3s aor. imperative
ὅτι: (namely) that…; the entire nounclause is subject of γενέσθω of nom. pl. aor. pple λαμβάνω
ἄν ἔχοις: you would know; potential opt.
ὅτι: what; ὅ τι, interrogative, inner acc. of
χράομαι: ‘what use you would make…’
χρῷο σαυτῷ: you would do with yourself; ‘employ yourself,’ χράοι(σ)ο is 2s pres. opt. replacing a deliberative subjunctive in secondary sequence
ὅποι ἂν ἀφίκῃ: to wherever…; indefinite relative clause (ἄν + 2s aor. subj.)
βούλῃ: 2s pres. mid. subj. in a general present condition (ἐάν + subj., ind.)
ἰέναι: inf. ἔρχομαι
εἰσὶν: 3p pres. εἰμί
οἵ: who…; relative, note the accent
περὶ πολλοῦ ποιήσονται: consider…of great (importance) ; gen. of value (S1373)
ὥστε: so that…; result, + acc. subj .+ inf.
σε μηδένα: μηδένα is acc. subj., σε, object
τῶν…: of those….; partitive gen.
κατὰ Θετταλίαν: in Thessaly
ἔτι δέ: and furthermore; ‘and still’
δίκαιον (εἶναι)… δοκεῖς: you think unjust to…; + inf. or ‘you think (it is) not just to’
ἐπιχειρεῖν πρᾶγμα: to attempt this matter
προδοῦναι: aor. inf. προδίδωμι
ἐξόν σωθῆναι: (though) it being allowed to be saved; acc. absolute.; neut. pple ἔξεστι
ἂν…σπεύσαιέν τε: both would be eager; aor. potential opt. σπεύδω
πρὸς τούτοις: in addition to these things
Page 067τοὺς ὑεῖς: children; see Apology 34d
προδιδόναι: pres. inf. προδίδωμι
οὕς: whom…; relative
ἐξὸν…ἐκπαιδεῦσαι: (though) it being allowed…; acc. absolute concessive in sense.; neut. pple ἔξεστι
ἐκθρέψαι: aor. inf. ἐκ-τρέφω
οἰχήσῃ: οἰχήσε(σ)αι, 2s fut. οἰχέομαι
καταλιπών: nom. aor. pple καταλείπω
τὸν σὸν μέρος: on your part; acc. respect
ὅτι ἂν τύχωσι (πράττοντες): whatever (the children) happen to accomplish; indefinite relative clause (ἄν+ aor. subj); τυγχάνω governs a complementary pple, here missing; the antecedent is τοῦτο
τοῦτο πράξουσιν: this they will accomplish; i.e. ‘they will fare in this way in which they happen to fare’ fut. πράττω
τεύξομαι: they will attain; + gen; i.e. “hit upon’ fut. τυγχάνω
τοιούτων οἷάπερ: such as; correlative
εἴωθεν: it is customary; pf. ἔθω
ποιεῖσθαι: to consider
καὶ...καὶ: both…and
τὰ ῥᾳθυμότατα: superlative adverb
αἱρεῖσθαι: to choose; pres. mid. inf.
ἂν…ἕλοιτο: would choose; potential opt., aor. mid. αἱρέω
φάσκοντά γε δὴ: (you) accustomed to claiming certainly; δὴ strengthens γε (D245); σκ suggests iterative/customary action
Page 068δόξῃ: lest the entire matter may seem; 3s aor. subj. in a fearing clause
ἀνανδρίᾳ…ἡμετέρᾳ: because of…; dat. of cause
πεπρᾶχθαι: pf. pass. inf. πράττω
καὶ...καὶ...καὶ: both…and…and
δίκης: legal case
ὡς εἰσῆλθεν: when (the case) entered
ἔξον…εἰσελθεῖν: (though) it being possible not to enter (the case) ; acc. abs. is concessive in force; neut. pple ἔξεστι
ἀγών: the trial
ὡς: see line 3 parallel above
τελευταῖον: finally; adverbial acc.
τουτί: this; deictic iota gives emphasis
κακίᾳ…ἡμετέρᾳ: dat. cause, see line 2
δοκεῖν: (namely) that we seem…; in apposition to τουτί; ἡμᾶς is acc. subject
οἵτινές: who…; antecedent ἡμᾶς
οἷον τε ὂν: (though) it being possible…; acc. abs.; neuter. sg. pres. pple εἰμί
εἴ…ἦν: if we were good for anything at all; lit. ‘if our use was even something small,’ καὶ ‘even’ is adverbial; ἡμῶν is subjective gen. of ὄφελος (if we profited Socrates)
ταῦτα: in respect to…; acc. respect
ὅρα μὴ: see (to it) that…; fearing clause with 3s pres. subj. εἰμί (S2220)
καὶ...ᾖ: (these things) also be shameful; supply neuter pl. subject for 3s verb
βουλεύου: sg. mid. imperative
ὥρα: (it is) time…; infinitives are subject
μία δὲ βουλὴ: and there is…; supply verb
Page 069ἐπ-ιούσης: coming; pple ἐπ-έρχομαι
νυκτὸς: during…; gen. of time within
πεπρᾶχθαι: pf. pass. inf. πράττω
ἀδύνατον: supply verb ἐστί
οἷόν τε (ἐστί): (it is) possible; ‘is the sort,’ neut. sg., οἷος τε + εἰμί is an idiom
παντὶ τρόπῳ: in every way; dat. manner
πείθου: sg. mid. imperative πείθω
ποίει: ποίεε; sg. act. imperative
ἡ προθυμία: your eagerness (would be) ; supply ἂν εἴη, potential opt. to complete this future less vivid (εἰ opt., ἄν opt.)
εἴη: (it) should be; 3s opt. εἰμί, protasis of the future less vivid conditions
ὅσῳ…τοσούτῳ…: by as much much…(it is)…by so much…(it would be) ; relative and demonstrative, correlatives; both dat. of degree of difference with comparatives
ὅσῳ μείζων: relative clause; supply verb
χαλεπωτέρα: predicate; supply linking verb and ἡ προθυμία as subject
πρακτέον: (we) must do these things; ‘(it is) to be done,’ verbal adj. + εἰμί suggests necessity or obligation; often with dat. of agent (supply ἡμῖν); here, the construction is impersonal and takes an acc. obj. (2152)
ὡς ἐγὼ: since I (am)… ; causal in sense
οὐ νῦν πρῶτον ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀεὶ: not now for the first time but in fact always; πρῶτον is adverbial acc.; καὶ is adverbial
οἷος…πείθεσθαι: so as to obey…; + dat. ‘which sort (is) to obey,’ relative; epexegetic (explanatory) mid. inf.
τῶν ἐμῶν: of my own; partitive gen.
: than;
ὃς ἄν: whatever…; ἄν + subj. in an indefinite relative clause
Page 070ἐκβαλεῖν: aor. inf. ἐκβάλλω
ἡ τύχη: misfortune
γέγονεν: 3s pf. γίγνομαι
σχεδὸν τι: just about, almost
τοὺς αὐτοὺς: the same (ones); as often when αὐτός is attributive (follows article)
οὕσπερ: just as; ‘which very ones (I honored)’; relative, supply form of τιμάω
πρότερον: comparative adverb
ὧν: than which; gen. of comparison
βελτίω: better things; βελτίο(ν)α; acc. pl.
ἔχωμεν: we are able; common idiom for ἔχω + inf.; 1p subj. in mixed condition
παρόντι: present (time) ; pple πάρ-ειμι
ἴσθι: sg. imperative οἶδα
οὐ μή: not; a strong denial + fut. (S2755)
πλείω: more; πλείο(ν)α; acc. neuter pl. inner acc. ‘give us more frights’
παρόντων: than (those)… ; gen. of comparison; see line 2 above, πάρ-ειμι
ἐπιπέμπουσα: fem. pple modifies δύναμις
ἀφαιρέσεις: acc. pl. ἀφ-αιρέσις
ἂν…σκοποίμεθα: should we consider; fut. less vivid ‘should, would (εἰ opt, ἄν + opt)
μετριώτατα: superlative adverb
αὐτά: them; neuter acc. pl.
ἀναλάβοιμεν: we should…; aor. opt. see 6 of the future less vivid conditions
λέγεις: you have been saying; the present is pf. progressive in sense
πότερον…ἢ: πότερον is left untranslated
καλῶς: well
Page 071ταῖς μὲν…ταῖς δὲ: to some…to others; dat. of compound verb προσέχειν
τῶν δοξῶν: partitive gen. with ταῖς
πρὶν μὲν…νῦν δὲ: previously…but now
ἐμὲ...ἀποθνῄσκειν: that it is necessary that; + acc. + inf., subject of ἐλέγετο
ἐλέγετο: it was said; inf. δεῖν is subject
ἄρα: it seems, then; particle is inferential
ἄλλως: poorly; ‘otherwise,’ in contrast to καλῶς it means ‘not well’ or ‘poorly’
ἕνεκα λόγου: for the sake of (idle) speech; i.e. Socrates complains that they should not treat the earlier arguments as something said but not followed
ἤν: it was; impf. εἰμί
ὡς ἀληθῶς: truly
ἐπισκέψασθαι: aor. inf. ἐπι-σκοπέω, which takes its non-present tenses from the verb ἐπισκέπτομαι
κοινῇ: in common
τί: at all; acc. extent of degree with adj.
φανεῖται: fut. φαίνομαι (fut. stem φανε)
ἔχω: ἔχω (holds, is disposed) + adv. is often translated as ‘to be’ + adjective
ἢ…ἢ: either…or
ὁ αὐτός: (it is) the same; a predicate
ἐάσομεν χαίρειν: will we dismiss; lit. ‘allow (acc.) to say farewell,’ 1p aor.
πεισόμεθα: fut. mid. πείθω + dat.
ἐγᾦμαι: I suppose; crasis, ἐγὼ οἶμαι
ὑπὸ: by those thinking…; gen. of agent
τὶ λέγειν: to say something (important)
τῶν δοξῶν ἅς: among the opinions which
δέοι: it was necessary; opt. ind. discourse replaces an indicative in secondary seq.
περὶ πολλοῦ ποιεῖσθαι: to consider (acc) of great (importance) ; gen. value (S1373)
Page 072τοῦτο: subject, λέγεσθαι is pass. inf.
πρὸς θεῶν: by the gods! ; ‘from the gods’ in exclamation rather than gen. agent
ὅσα γε τἀνθρώπεια: so far as (they are) human affairs at least; ὂσα is adverbial, τὰ ἀνθρώπεια is neuter plural
εἶ: 2s pres. εἰμί, ἐκτὸς is predicative
τοῦ μέλλειν: of going to: + fut. inf. an articular infinitive governed by ἐκτὸς + acc. + inf., subject of ἐλέγετο
ἂν…παρακρούοι: would lead astray.. ; ‘strike aside,’ potential opt.
παροῦσα: fem. pple πάρειμι
σκόπει: σκόπεε; sg. imperative
δὴ: just; emphasizing the imperative
τιμᾶν: inf. α-contract
τὰς μὲν…τὰς δὲ: some…others; δόξας
τῶν μὲν…τῶν δὲ: of some…of others; ἀνθρώπων
φῄς: 2s pres. φημί
οὐχὶ: deictic iota (-ι) adds emphasis
καλῶς: well
λέγεται: 3s pass. with neut. pl. subject
τιμᾶν: (is it necessary) to honor; add δεῖ
χρηστὰς, πονηρὰς: i.e. δόξας

Types of Conditions

Protasis (if-clause) Apodosis (then-clause)
Simple Present, Simple Past εἰ + any indicative any indicative
εἰ ταῦτα ποιεῖς, καλῶς ποιεῖς.
If you do this, you do well.
Present General (Indefinite)ἐάν + subjunctive (if ever)present indicative
ἐὰν ταῦτα ποιῇς, καλῶς ποιεῖς.
If (ever) you do this, you do well.
Past General (Indefinite)εἰ + optative (if ever)past indicative
εἰ ταῦτα ποιοίης, καλῶς ἐποίεις.
If (ever) you did this, you did well.

Page 073χρησταὶ, πονηραὶ: predicates; add verb
φέρε δή: come now! ; ‘carry on now,’ imperative often used to draw attention
ἐλέγετο: were said; iterative impf., easier to express in the active: ‘we used to say’
πότερον…ἢ: πότερον is left untranslated
ἐπαίνῳ…δόξῃ: to the…; dat. object of the compound verb προσέχει
τὸν νοῦν προσέχει: i.e. pay attention
ἑνὸς: of one…; gen. sg. εἷς
τυγχάνῃ…ὤν: happen to be; ἄν + 3s pres. subj. in an indefinite relative clause; ὤν is a complementary pple, nom. sg. εἰμί
ἑνὸς: of one…; gen. sg. εἷς

Future More Vividἐάν + subjunctivefuture indicative
ἐὰν ταῦτα ποιῇς, καλῶς ποιήσεις.
If you do this, you will do well.
Future Less Vividεἰ + optative (should)ἄν + optative (would)
εἰ ταῦτα ποιοίης, καλῶς ἄν ποιοίης.
If you should do this, you would do well.
Present Contrary-to-Factεἰ + impf. ind. (were)ἄν + impf. ind. (would)
εἰ ταῦτα ἐποίεις, καλῶς ἄν ἐποίεις.
If you were doing this, you would be doing well.
Past Contrary-to-Factεἰ + aor. ind. (had)ἄν + aor. ind (would have)
εἰ ταῦτα ἐποίησας, καλῶς ἄν ἐποίησας.
If you had done this, you would have done well.

Page 074δῆλα δή: quite clearly; ‘(it is) quite clear’
ταύτῃ: in this way; dat. of manner
αυτῷ: by him; dat. of agent with verbal adjective (see below)
πρακτέον…ποτέον: see below
γε: emphasizes preceding word
: in whichever way…; relative, dat. of manner correlative with ταύτῃ
ἂν…δοκῇ: it seems best; 3s subj. in an indefinite relative clause
τῷ ἑνὶ: to the one; dat. sg. εἷς
τῷ…ἐπαΐοντι: in apposition to τῷ ἑνὶ
μᾶλλον ἢ: rather than
: in whichever way (it seems best)
ἔστι: are (the case) ; sg. with neut. pl. subj.
εἶεν: well! ; particle from opt. εἰμί ‘let it be’
πείσεται: fut. πάσχω
πῶς γὰρ οὔ;: how could he not?; πῶς γὰρ expresses impossibility and surprise

Verbal Adjectives Ending in -τέος, -τέα, -τέον

Along with εἰμί and a dative of agent, these verbal adjectives express necessity or obligation. Often the construction is impersonal, and the form of εἰμί or the dative is omitted. In translation, we often make the dative of agent the subject of an active verb. (2149-2152, 944)

πρακτέον ἐστὶν ἡμῖν p. 69it is to be done by uswe must/ought to do

πρακτέον αὐτῷ p. 74 he must do ἀδικητέον εἶναι p. 82 we must wrong
γυμναστέον αὐτῷ p. 74 he must train ποιητέον p. 86 twice we must consider
ἐδεστέον αὐτῷ p. 74 he must eat ἐξαπατητέον p. 86 he must deceive
ποτέον αὐτῷ p. 74 he must drink ποιητέον p. 92 twice you must deceive
φροντιστέον ἡμῖν p. 77 we must consider ὑπεικτέον p. 92 you must yield
ποιητέον p. 79 we must consider ἀναχωρητέον p. 72 you must withdrawn
σκεπτέον ᾖ p. 80 we must examine λειπτέον p. 92 you must abandoned

Page 075εἰς τί τῶν: onto what (of) part of the one disobeying; τῶν is partitive, cf. 46b5
δῆλον ὅτι: (it is) clear that; or ‘clearly’
διόλλυσι: 3s pres. δι-όλλυμι
καλῶς: well
καὶ τἆλλα: and in other matters; crasis, τὰ ἄλλα is neuter pl. acc. of respect
ἵνα μὴ: so that…may not; negative purpose clause; subjunctive δι-έρχομαι
καὶ δὴ καὶ: in particular; ‘and in fact also’
ὧν: which…; relative pronoun
πότερον…ἢ: no need to translate πότερον
τῇ…δόξῃ: dat. obj. of pres. inf. ἕπομαι
αὐτὴν: it; i.e. fem. sg. δόξῃ
τῇ τοῦ ἑνός: that of one; assume δόξῃ
ὃν: whom…; relative, object of infinitives
: whom…; dat. object of ἀκολουθέω

Indefinite (or General) Clauses
relative ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι + ἄν + subj. ὅ τι ἄν ποιῇ whatever she does...
temporal ἐπειδάν, ὅταν, ἕως ἄν + subj. ἐπειδάν ποιῇ whenever she does…
conditional ἐάν + subj. ἐάν ποιῇ if ever she does…
Potential Optativeἵνα, ὅπως, ὡς + subj. ἵνα ποιῇ so that (in order that)...
Fearing Clausesἄν + past indicative ἄν ἐποίησε she would have done…

Page 076διαφθεροῦμεν: future
ἐκεῖνο…ὅ: that which…
τῷ δικαίῳ: by the right, just; dat. means
ἐγίγνετο: was made; βέλτιον is predicate
τῷ ἀδίκῳ: by the wrong, unjust; means
ἀπώλλυτο: impf. pass. ἀπ-όλλυμι
οἶμαι: οἴομαι
φέρε δή: come now! ; ‘carry on now,’ an imperative often used to draw attention
ἐὰν…διολέσωμεν: if we destroy; aor. subj. δι-όλλυμι in a present general condition (ἐὰν+ subj., pres. ind.)
τὸ...γιγνόμενον…δὲ διαφθειρόμενον: the thing becoming….but being corrupted…
ὑπὸ...: because of…; gen. of cause
πειθόμενοι μὴ: if not…; pple is conditional is sense; hence μὴ instead of οὐ (S2728)
ἆρα: untranslated, begins yes/no question
ἡμῖν: impf. pass. ἀπ-όλλυμι
διεφθαρμένου αὐτοῦ: with it being corrupted; gen. abs., pf. pass. pple
οὐχί: deictic iota lends extra emphasis
ἆρ ᾿: ἆρα, as above
διεφθαρμένου: pf. pass. pple διαφθείρω

Common Uses of Subjunctive in Independent Clauses

Hortatory (1p subj.)
πειρὡμεθα let us attempt 48c2 p. 79
σκοπῶμεν let us examine 48d8 p. 81
ἀρχώμεθα let us begin 49d6 p. 85
πράττωμεν let us do 54e1 p. 106
Prohibitive (μή + aor. subj.)
μήτε…ἀποκάμῃς do not tire! / you should not tire! 45b6 p. 65
μή…πείσῃ do not let Crito persuade! 54c8-d1 p. 105
Deliberative (subj. in direct question)
τί δρῶμεν what are we to do? 48d7 p. 81
τί φῶμεν what are we to say? 48d7 p. 98

Page 077μετ ᾿: with…; μετὰ + gen.
ἄρ ᾿: ἄρα
βιωτὸν: supply ἐστί
διεφθαρμένου: pf. pass. pple with ἐκείνου
: which; dat. obj. of λωβᾶται, ὀνίνησιν
τὸ ἄδικον: the unjust, wrong; substantive
τὸ δίκαιον: the just, the right
φαυλότερον: pred. adjective after εἶναι
τοῦ σώματος: than…; gen. comparison
ἐκείνο: acc. subj. of εἶναι, inf. of εἰμί
ὅτι: which; ὅ τι
περὶ ὃ: with regard to which
τιμιώτερον: in contrast to φαυλότερον
πολύ γε: yes, far (more honorable) ; πολύ is adverbial acc. or acc. extent of degree, supply τιμιώτερον
οὐκ…πάνυ: not at all; ‘exceedingly not’
ἡμῖν: by us; dat. of agent with verbal adj.
φροντιστέον: it must be considered; verbal adj. + missing εἰμι expresses necessity or obligation 47b9
ἐροῦσιν: 3p ἐρέω (used as fut. λέγω)

Common Uses of the Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses

Indefinite (or General) Clauses
relative ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι + ἄν + subj. ὅ τι ἄν ποιῇ whatever she does...
temporal ἐπειδάν, ὅταν, ἕως ἄν + subj. ἐπειδάν ποιῇ whenever she does…
conditional ἐάν + subj. ἐάν ποιῇ if ever she does…
Purpose Clauseἵνα, ὅπως, ὡς + subj. ἵνα ποιῇ so that (in order that)...
Fearing Clauseμὴ + subj. μὴ ποιῇ lest she does…

Page 078ὁ εἷς: the one
αὐτὴ: itself; intensive
πρῶτον: at first; adverbial acc.
ταύτῃ: in this way; dat. of manner
εἰσηγῇ: εἰσ-ηγέεσαι 2s pres. mid.
τῆς…δόξης: gen. object of φροντίζειν
δεῖν: that it is necessary; ind. discourse following pple εἰσηγούμενος
ἀλλὰ μὲν δή: but of course; in contrast (D394); μὲν δή suggest positive certainty
φαίη γ ᾿ ἄν τις: one might say; potential 3s pres. opt. φημί
οἷοι τέ εἰσιν: they are able; ‘are the sort,’ neut. sg., οἷος τε + εἰμί (3p) is idiom
ἀποκτεινύναι: pres. inf.
δῆλα δὴ: (are) quite clear; supply ἐστί
καὶ: also; adverbial
φαίη γὰρ ἄν: for one would say (this) ; Crito agrees by repeating Socrates’ words
ἀληθῆ: the truth; ἀληθέα, ‘truth things’
ὃν: which…; relative
διεληλύθαμεν: 1p pf. δι-έρχομαι
ὅμοιος…καὶ: same as; καί (as) often follows adjs. of likeness (S1501)
πρότερον: comparative adverb

Optatives may Replace Subjunctives in Subordinate Clauses
In secondary sequence an optative may replace a subj. (with/out ἄν) in a subordinate clause.

Indefinite subjunctive optative
relative ὅ τι ἄν ποιῇ ὅ τι ποιοῖ whatever she did
temporal ἐπειδὰν ποιῇ ἐπειδὴ ποιοῖ whenever she did
conditional ἐὰν ποιῇεἰ ποιοῖ if ever she did
Purpose ἴνα ποιῇἴνα ποιοῖ so that she might do…
Fearing μὴ ποιῇμὴ ποιοῖ lest she (might) do…

Page 079σκόπει: σκόπεε; sg. imperative
εἰ: whether
μένει…ὅτι: (it) abides…(namely) that
τὸ ζῆν: to live; articular infinitive, ζάω, is acc. object of impersonal ποιητέον
περὶ πλείστου: of the greatest (importance) ; gen. of value
ποιητέον: we must consider; ‘(it is) to be considered (by us); verbal adj., add ἐστί
τὸ...(ζῆν) ὅτι…ἐστιν: that to (live)….is the same; lit. ‘to live…that it is the same,’ the articular infinitive (add ζῆν) is the subject; an example of prolepsis (anticipation): in this case the subject of ἐστιν is outside the ὅτι clause;
μένει: abides; the ὅτι clause is subject
ὁμολογουμένων: the (things) agreed on
σκεπτέον: we must examine; ‘(it is) to be examined (by us); verbal adj., add ἐστί
πότερον…ἢ: leave πότερον untranslated
δίκαιον: (it is) right, (it is) just; add verb
ἐξίεναι: inf. ἐξ-έρχομαι
μὴ ἀφιέντων Ἀθηναίων: if the Athenian do not... ; gen. absolute, the μὴ indicates it is conditional in sense; pres. pple ἀφ-ίημι
φαίνηται: pres. subj. in a mixed condition
πειρώμεθα: let us…; hortatory subjunctive
ἐῶμεν: let us let it be; hortatory subj. ἐάω
ἃς…: which…; σκέψεις is the antecedent
τὰς σκέψεις: as for the considerations; ‘in respect to…’ acc. of respect

φημί, φήσω37,39, ἔφησα: to say, claim

Present Imperfect Subjunctive Optative
1st φημί φαμέν28-29,40-1 ἔφην ἔφαμεν φῶ φῶμεν44 φαίην φαῖμεν
2nd φῄς18,45 φατέ ἔφης (or ἔφησθα43)ἔφατε φῇς φῆτε φαίης φαίητε
3rd φησί(ν) φᾱσί(ν)6,29-30 ἔφη ἔφασαν φῇ φῶσι φαίη24 φαῖεν42
Inf. φάναι

(Superscript denotes page number in Steadman's book)

Page 080μὴ...ᾖ: perhaps these are the speculations; μὴ + subjunctive in main clause (here, 3s subj. εἰμι) expresses doubtful assertion (S1801), a construction used mainly by Plato and twice more below
ὡς ἀληθῶς: truly; ‘thus truly’
ἀναβιωσκομένων γ ᾿ ἂν: bringing (them) back to life; ἂν + pple is equivalent here to a ἄν + past ind. (past potential): ‘who would bring them back again’
οἷοι τ᾿ ἦσαν: οἷος τε + εἰμί (here impf.) is an idiom equivalent to ‘to be able’
οὐδενὶ ξὺν νῷ: σὺν οὐδενὶ νῷ; dat. νοῦς
ἡμῖν: by us; dat. agent with verbal adj.
αἱρεῖ: wins out; ‘overtakes’ or ‘takes over’
μὴ..σκεπτέον ᾖ: perhaps we must examine; μὴ + subjunctive in main clause (here, 3s subj. εἰμί) expresses doubtful assertion; ‘perhaps it is to be examined’; verbal adj. + ἐιμί expressing obligation + dat. agent
: than; following ἄλλο
πότερον…ἢ: leave πότερον untranslated
τελοῦντες: paying
τούτοις τοῖς…ἐξάξουσιν: to these…; dat. pl. fut. pple (going to…) ἐξ-άγω
καὶ χάριτας: acc. obj. of τελοῦντες
τῇ ἀληθείᾳ: in truth; adverbial
κἂν: even if…; crasis, καὶ ἐὰν + pres. subj. in a present general condition
φαινώμεθα: appear to; + pple
μὴ οὐ...δεῄ: perhaps it is necessary not…; μὴ + subjunctive in main clause (here, 3s subj. δεῖ) expresses doubtful assertion (S1801); μὴ is a doubtful assertaion and μὴ οὐ, as above, is a negative negation
οὔτε…οὔτε: both…and; following μὴ οὐ
Page 081ἄγοντας: keeping
ὁτιοῦν: whatsoever
πρὸ: instead of; + articular infinitive
καλῶς: well
ὅρα: ὄραε, sg. imperative
δρῶμεν: are we to do; deliberative subj.
σκοπῶμεν: let us…; hortatory subjunctive
κοινῇ: in common; dat. of manners
ἔχεις: you are able
ἐμοῦ λέγοντος: gen. absolute
πείσομαι: fut. mid. πείθω
παῦσαι: 1st aor. imperative, παύω
αὐτὸν: the same; attributive position
ὡς: (namely) that; apposition to λόγον
ἀκόντων Ἀθηναίων: although…; gen. abs. concessive in sense
ἀπιέναι: inf. ἀπ-έρχομαι
περὶ πολλοῦ ποιοῦμαι: consider of great (importance) ; gen. of value (S1373)
πείσας σε: nom. sg. aor. pple πείθω
ταῦτα πράττειν: governed by ποιοῦμαι
μὴ ἄκοντος (σοῦ): if... ; gen. abs. (supply σοῦ), μὴ suggests it is conditional in sense
ὅρα…δὴ: just see, see now; ὄραε, sg. imperative, δὴ is emphatic (D217)
τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐάν: whether the beginning…; lit. ‘the beginning, whether (it)…’ an example of prolepsis: make the acc. the subject within the conditional
σοι: to you; dat. reference
πειρῶ: πειρά(σ)ο, 2s mid imperative
τὸ ἐρωτώμενον: the thing…; pass. pple
: in whatever way; relative, dat. manner
οἴῃ: 2s pres. subj. οἴομαι + αν in a general relative clause
Page 082πειράσομαι: future
οὐδενὶ τρόπῳ: in…; dat. of manner
φαμὲν: 1p pres. φημί
ἑκόντας: (we) unwilling; agrees with missing accusative subject
ἀδικητέον εἶναι: we must do wrong; ‘is to be wronged; verbal adj. + εἰμί ῾(inf.) in ind. discourse
ἢ…ἢ: either…or
τινὶ μὲν….πρόπῳ…τινὶ δὲ: in some ways…in other ways; dat. of manner
τό γε ἀδικεῖν: articular subject; add ἐστί
ὡς: just as, as
ἡμῖν: with us, by us; dat. of assocation
ἐν…χρόνῳ: in former times
ὡμολογήθη: 3s aor. pass.
ἡμῖν: by us; dat. of assocation governed by ὁμολογίαι
ἐκκεχυμέναι εἰσίν: periphrastic pf. pass. (pf. pass. pple ἐκ-χέω+ 3rd pl. pres εἰμι)
τηλικοίδε γέροντες ἄνδρες: (we) old men of this age; assume 1st pl. subject
πρὸς ἀλλήλους: with one another
σπουδῇ: earnestly, seriously; ‘in earnest, in seriousness’ dat. of manner
ἐλάθομεν: 1p aor, λανθάνω
ἡμᾶς…διαφέροντες: that we…differ; ind. discourse
παίδων: from…; gen. of comparison
οὐδὲν: not at all; inner acc. ‘no difference’
παντὸς μᾶλλον: more than anything; ‘more than everything’ gen. comparison
ἔχει: it is; ‘holds’ + adv. is often translated as ‘to be’ + adjective
Page 083φασὶν: 3p pres. φημί
τῶνδε: that these; gen. of comparison
χαλεπώτερα: neuter pl. comparative
καὶ: even; adverbal
πρᾳότερα: neuter pl. comparative
τό γε ἀδικεῖν: articular subject́
καὶ...καὶ: both…and
τυγχάνει ὂν: happen to be; neut. sg. complementary pple. εἰμί
παντὶ τρόπῳ: in…; dat. of manner
φαμὲν: 1p pres. φημί
οὐ δῆτα: certainly not; expresses approval of the negation in the previous statement
ἀδικούμενον: (one) being wronged; acc. subject of ἀνταδικεῖν
ἀνταδικεῖν: supply δεῖ
ὡς: as
οὐ φαίνεται: no, it appears; as above, expresses approval of previous negation

Cases that Accompany Comparative Adjectives (1063-93)

Positive Comparative Superlative
χαλεπός, ή, όν χαλεπώτερος, ᾱ, ον χαλεπώτατος, η, ον
difficult more difficult most difficult

Gen. of Comparison can replace ἤ (than) + object. Supply ‘than’ in translation. (1431)
δεῖ χαλεπώτερα πάσχειν τῶνδε.
It is necessary to suffer more difficult things than these.

Dat. of Degree of Difference is the amount by which the two groups in the comparison differ. (1513)
δεῖ πολλῷ χαλεπώτερα...
It is necessary to suffer much more difficult things

Acc. of Extent of Degree, a type of adverbial acc., can replace the dative. (1514,-86,1609)
δεῖ πολὺ χαλεπώτερα...
It is necessary to suffer much more difficult things

Page 084τί δὲ δή: Well, what then? ; δὴ ‘then’ is inferential not emphatic (S2846); τί δὲ similar to τί δαί (S2848, D263)
τί δὲ: well, what?, What (now)?
ἀντικακουργεῖν: this acc.-infinitive is subject of δίκαιον (ἐστι) below
πάσχοντα: modifies missing acc. subj. (supply ‘one’ as subject of the inf.)
φασιν: 3p pres. φημί
δίκαιον: (is it) right…? (is it) just…?
τὸ...ποιεῖν: to treat…; articular inf., a common translation for ποιέω when governed by an adverb
τοῦ ἀδικεῖν: from…; articular inf., here a gen. of comparison governed by διαφέρει
ἀληθῆ: the truth; ἀληθέα, ‘true things’
ποιεῖν: to treat…; see note 7 above
οὐδὲ ἂν: not even if…; ἂν is a contracted form of ἐὰν + 3s pres. subj. in a present general condition
ὁτιοῦν: whatsoever; neut. acc.
ὑπὸ: by, at the hands of; gen. of agent
ὅρα: ὅραε, sg. imperative
d1 ὅπως μὴ: that…not; clause of effort often governs fut. ind. but here a pres. subj.
παρὰ δόξαν: contrary to opinion

Translating Participles and Absolutes
Participles and absolutes may be translated a variety of ways depending on their use in the sentence. If they describe the circumstances of the main action, they are circumstantial in sense; if they describe the causes, causal in sense, etc. Below are the main categories for translation:

sense of pple or absolute κακῶς πάσχοντα (49c4)ἐμοῦ λέγοντος (48e1)
Circumstantial (when/while) suffering badly (when/while) I am talking
Causal (since/because) suffering badly (since) I am talking
Concessive/Adversative (although) suffering badly (although) I am talking
Conditional (if) suffering badly (if) I am talking

Page 085ὀλίγοις τισὶ: to some few; dat. reference
καὶ δοκεῖ: both…seems (good) ; pl. subject
οἷς…οἷς: to whom…; antecedent τούτοις
δέδοκται: pf. mid. δοκέω
τούτοις: dat. of possession: ‘to these there is’ or ‘these have…’
ἀνάγκη: (it is) necessary; supply verb
τούτους: acc. subject of καταφρονεῖν
καταφρονεῖν: verbs of accusing and condemnation govern gen. of person
σκόπει: σκόπεε, sg. imperative
δὴ: just; often emphasizes an imperative
καὶ σὺ εὖ μάλα: and you (consider) very well; assume σκόπει again for emphasis
πότερον…σοι: whether…; ind. question
ἀρχώμεθα: let us…; hortatory subjunctive
ὡς: that…; governed by βουλευόμενοι
οὐδέποτε ὀρθῶς ἔχοντος…τοῦ ἀδικεῖν…τοῦ ἀνταδικεῖν. . (τοῦ) ἀμύνεσθαι: it is right…; gen. abs. (the other part is a series of articular infs.); ἔχω (holds) + adv. is translated as ‘to be’ + adj.
οὔτε…(τοῦ)…ἀμύνεσθαι: supply τοῦ to make the articular inf. parallel to the others
κακῶς πάσχοντα: modifies missing acc. subject of ἀμυνέσθαι
ἀντιδρῶντα: by…; pple is causal in sense
ἀφίστασαι: do you disagree? ; ‘do you revolt from’ 2s mid. pres. ἀφίστημι
ἀρχῆς: the beginning; i.e. of the examination; partitive gen.
καὶ...καὶ: both…and
πῃ ἄλλῃ: in…; dative of manner
λέγε καὶ δίδασκε: imperative
τοῖς πρόσθε: the previous (arguments) ; dat. of compound verb ἐμ-μένεις
Page 086τὸ μετὰ: the next thing; ‘the one after’
ἀλλ ᾿: well; in assent, often short in Plato and repeating words (S2784a, D16, 20)
ἀλλὰ: come now; ‘but…’ often before an imperative it suggests impatience (S2784c)
δὴ: now; temporal (S2845)
τὸ μετὰ τοῦτο: see above
μᾶλλον δ ᾿: but rather
πότερον…ἢ: ….or…?; leave πότερον untranslated
: whichever…; general relative clause (relative + ἄν + subjunctive, here aor.)
τῷ: with someone; indefinite, alternative to dat. sg. τινί, here dat. of association
ὄντα: acc. neut. pl. pple εἰμί
ποιητέον: must he consider; ‘(is it) to be considered (by him); verbal adj. add ἐστί
ἐξαπατητέον: must he deceive; ‘(is it) to be deceived (by him); verbal adj. + ἐστί
ἄθρει: ἄθρεε, sg. imperative ε-contract
ἀπίοντες: nom. pl. pres. pple ἀπέρχομαι
μὴ πείσαντες: if not persuading…; aor. πείθω; μή indicates the pple is conditional
πότερον…ἢ: whether…or
τινας: some; indefinite
ποιοῦμεν: we treat; pres. καταφρονεῖν
καὶ ταῦτα: and what is more; ‘and in respect to these things’ acc. of respect
οὓς ἥκιστα δεῖ (κακῶς ποιεῖν): (those) whom we least ought to treat badly; a clarification of τινας above; ἥκιστα is a superlative adverb
οἷς: (those things) which; an acc. plural (see 49e6); acc. neut. pl. relative attracted into the dat. of the missing antecedent
δικαίοις οὖσιν: dat. pl. pple εἰμί modifies οἷς and should likewise be acc. see line 3 above and 49e6

ἔρομαι vs. ἐρέω: often confused, the voice will distinguish these two verbs.

1st ἔρομαι ἐρόμεθα I ask ἐρῶ ἐροῦμεν I will say
2nd ἔρεσαι ἔρεσθε ἐρεῖς ἐρεῖτε
3rd ἔρεται ἔρονται ἐρεῖ ἐροῦσιν

ἔρομαι occurs once (50a8). ἐρέω, 7 times, is treated as the future of the verb λέγω

Page 087ἔχω: I am able; as often with an infinitive
πρὸς ὃ: regarding what; ‘regarding (that) which’ the antecedent is missing
ἐρωτᾷς: ἐρωτάεις, 2s α-contract
σκόπει: σκόπεε, sg. imperative
μέλλουσιν: dat. pl. pple μέλλω pple
ἡμῖν: for us; dat. interest or dat. of compound verb ἐπισταν́τες: ‘over us’
εἴτε…εἴθ ᾿: either…or
εἴθ ᾿ ὅπως…τοῦτο: or however one ought call it; aor. ὀνομάζω
ἐλθόντες: nom. pl. aor. pple ἔρχομαι
τὸ κοινὸν: the common (wealth)
ἐπιστάντες: standing over; pple, common way in Homer of depicting the gods who appeared to humans in dreams and visions
ἔροιντο: should…; opt. ἔρομαι, protasis in future less vivid condition (εἰ opt, ἄν opt)
εἴπε: sg. imperative εἶπον
ἐν νῷ: in mind; dat. sg. νοῦς
ἄλλο τί ἤ: is it anything else than? ; (2652)
τούτῳ…ἔργῳ: by…;dat. of means
: which; relative, dat. of compound
διανοῇ : διανοέε(σ)αι, 2s pres.
ἀπολέσαι: aor. inf. ἀπόλλυμι
τὸν σὸν μέρος: on your part; acc. respect
οἷὸν τε…εἶναι: to be able; ‘to be the sort’
ἐν ᾗ: in which
αἱ γένομεναι δίκαι: the decisions made
ἐροῦμεν: 1p ἑρέω ( fut. λέγω)
Page 088πρὸς: to…; i.e. in response to
ἄν…ἔχοι: one would be able, one could; 3s potential opt. + εἶπειν below
ἄλλως τε καὶ: especially; ‘both otherwise and’
ὑπὲρ: on behalf of + gen.
τὰς δίκας δικασθείσας: the legal decisions decided upon; aor. pass. pple; acc. subj. of inf. εἰμί
ἐροῦμεν: 1p ἑρέω ( fut. λέγω)
ἠδίκει: ἠδίκεε, impf.
ταῦτα: in affirmative replies one often repeats what the previous speaker said
νὴ Δία: by Zeus; acc. sg. Ζεύς
τί…ἂν: what if…; τί…ἐὰν + aor. subj. protasis in a future more vivid condition; ἂν is an alternative to ἐὰν (S2283)
: truly...?; begins a yes/no question
καὶ ταῦτα: these things also
ὡμολογητο: plpf. pass. ὁμολογέω
ἡμῖν…σοί: by…; dat. of association
: or
ταῖς δίκαις: dat. of compound verb
αἷς: by whichever; relative, dat. of means
δικάζῃ: 3s subj. + ἄν in a general relative clause (hence ‘whichever’)
εἰ θαυμάζοιμεν…ἂν εἴποιεν: if…should, they would…; 1p pres. opt. and 3p aor. opt. in a future less vivid condition
αὐτῶν…λεγόντων: gen. obj. of θαυμάζω
μὴ θαύμαζε: negative command

Complementary (Supplementary) Participles (2088 ff.)
Some participles complete the sense of a main verb such as τυγχάνω7 times or παύω1 time.

παῦσαι λέγων: stop saying (48c2) τυγχάνει ὄν: happen to be (49b5)
ἂν τύχωσι ποιοῦντες: happen to do (44d10, 45d2) ὤν ἐτύγχανεν: happened to be (50e8)
τυγχάνῃ ὤν: happen to be (47b3) ὡμολογηκὼς τυγχάνω: I happen to have… (52b7)

Page 089τὰ λεγόμενα: the things said; pass. pple
ἀποκρίνου: ἀποκρίνε(σ)ο, sg. mid. imperative
εἴωθας: you are accustomed; pf. ἔθω
χρῆσθαι: pres. mid. inf. χράομαι
τῷ ἐρωτᾶν…ἀποκρίνεσθαι: by…; two articular infinitives, dat. of means
τί: what…?; interrogative is acc. sg. obj. of the nom. sg. res. pple ἐγκαλῶν
ἡμῖν…πόλει: dat. obj. of ἐγκαλῶν
ἀπολλύναι: inf.
οὐ…ἐγεννήσαμεν: did we not beget…?; a question anticipating a ‘yes’ response
πρῶτον: first; adverbial acc.
ἔλαβε: 3s aor. λαμβάνω
φράσον: aor. imperative φράζω
τούτοις ἡμῶν, τοῖς νόμοις: to those laws among us; ‘to these of us, the laws…. ‘
περὶ: regarding…
μέμφῃ: μέμφε(σ)αι, 2s pres. mid. + dat
ὡς…ἔχουσιν: on the grounds that…; ὡς + pple (dat. pl. pres) expresses alleged cuase.
καλῶς: well
καλῶς ἔχουσιν: ἔχε (‘holds’ or ‘is disposed’) + adv translates as ‘to be’ + adj.
οὐ μέμφομαι…τοῖς: I do not blame (these laws regarding marriages) but those.... ; supply νόμοις
φαίην ἄν: I would say; 1s pres. subj. + ἄν is the apodosis of a future less vivid condition that was started in c4
τοῦ γενομένου: of the one born
ἑν ᾗ: relative pronoun
ἐπαιδεύθης: 2s aor. pass.
ἡμῶν: among us; partitive with νόμοι
ἐπὶ τούτῳ: for this (purpose) (S1689)
τεταγμένοι: pf. pass. pple τάττω
Page 090καλῶς: well
φαίην ἄν: I would say; 1s pres. subj. + ἄν is the apodosis of a future less vivid condition that was started in c4
εἶεν: well! ; particle from opt. εἰμί ‘let it be’
ἐγένου: ἐγένε(σ)ο, 2s impf. passive
ἐξετράφης, ἐπαιδεύθης: 2s aor. pass., ἐκ-τρέφω, παιδεύω
ἔχοις ἂν: would you be able; or ‘could you’ potential opt., ἔχοις governs an inf.
ἦσθα: 2s impf. εἰμί
οὐχὶ: deictic iota (-ι) adds emphasis
αὐτός: (you) yourself; nom. without an article is an intensive pronoun, assume σύ
τοῦθ ᾿: τοῦτο, nom. subject
ἔχει: is; ‘holds’ or ‘is disposed’ + adv. is often translated as ‘to be’ + adj.
ἆρα: introduces yes/no questions
ἐξ ἴσου: on equal terms; ‘out of equal(ity)’
οἴει: 2s pres mid. οἴομαι
τὸ δίκαιον: the just, the right; the article makes this adjective a substantive
σοὶ καὶ ἡμῖν : for you and for us
ἅττα: whatever; ἅτινα, neut. plural
ἂν…ἐπιχειρῶμεν : ἄν + pres. subj. in a general relative cause with ἅττα
σε…ποιεῖν : to do…to you; ποιέω governs a double acc., ἅττα and σε
σοι: for you; dat. of interest governed by δίκαιον
οἴει: 2s pres mid. οἴομαι
δίκαιον εἶναι: it is right; ταῦτα ἀντιποιεῖν
πρὸς μὲν…τὸν πατέρα: with regard to your father
ἐξ ἴσου: on equal terms; ‘out of equal(ity)’
ἦν: 3s impf. εἰμί
σοι ὢν ἐτύγχανεν: you happen to have; ‘there happens to be for you,’ dat. possession; τυγχάνω + complementary pple is often translated ‘happens to’
ἅπερ πάσχοις: whatever you experienced; general relative clause, opt replaces ἄν + subj. in secondary sequence, the antecedent is ταῦτα
κακῶς ἀκούοντα: being spoken of poorly; ἀκούω is used passively with κακῶς and εὖ (S1593, 1752)
Page 091οντα: add ἀκού- from the previous page
τυπτόμενον: pass. pple modifies the missing acc. subject of the infinitive
ἐξέσται σοι: it will be allowed for you (to act in this way) ; fut. ἐξέστι
ἐάν…ἐπιχειρῶμεν…ἐπιχειρήσεις: if we attempt…you will attempt; fut. more vivid (ἐάν + subj., fut. ind.)
ἡμεῖς: we; nom. subj. for emphasis
ἀπολλύναι: inf. ἀπόλλυμι
δίκαιον…εἶναι: that it is just
ἡγούμενοι: believing
καθ ᾿ ὅσον…δύνασαι: insofar as…; 2s present δύναμαι
φήσεις: 2s fut. φημί
δίκαια: just (actions) ; inner accusative ὁ…ἐπμελόμενος: nom. in apposition to ‘you’ the understood subject of φήσεις
: or
εἶ: 2s pres. εἰμί
λέληθέν…ὅτι: it has escaped your notice that…; 3s pf. λανθάνω
μητρός…ἁπάντων: than…; gen. of comparison governed by the comparative τιμώτερον
πατρὶς: nom. subject of ἐστιν
σεμνότερον…ἁγιωτερον: predicate adj. parallel to τιμώτερον
ἐν μείζονι μοίρᾳ: in a greater position
καὶ παρὰ...καὶ παρὰ: both among…and among
Page 092ἔχουσι: dat. pl. pres. pple
χαλεπαίνουσαν: modifies f. acc. πατρίδα missing acc. subject of the infinitive
ἤ πατέρα: than…; following μᾶλλον
ἤ…ἤ: either…or
ἃ ἂν κελεύῃ: whatever…; ἄν + 3s pres. subj. in a general relative clause, κελεύω
ἐάν…προστάττῃ: if the fatherland orders; ἄν + 3s subj. present general condition
παθεῖν: aor. inf. πάσχω
ἄγοντα: keeping; acc. sg. pple
δεῖσθαι: to be bound; passive inf.
ἄγῃ: it leads (him) ; 3s subj.
τρωθησόμενον, ἀποθανούμενον: fut. pples of τιτρώσκω, ἀποθνήσκω
ποιητέον: (you) must do; ‘(it is) to be done (by you); verbal adj. supply ἐστί
ὑπεικτέον…λειπτέον…: see b6 above
ποιητέον: (you) must do; ‘(it is) to be done (by you); verbal adj. supply ἐστί
ἃ ἂν κελεύῃ: see line 4, although the verb is 3s, the subject is plural,
αὐτὴν: her; i.e. ἡ πατρὶς
: inf. ἀπόλλυμι
πέφυκε: is (by nature) ; 3s pf. φύω
ὅσιον: (it is) impious
πολὺ: far; adverbial acc. or acc. of extent of degree with ἧττον
Page 093τούτων: than…; gen. of comparison
τὴν πατρίδα: object of βιάζεσθαι
φήσομεν: 1p fut. φημί
πρὸς ταῦτα: in response to…
ἀληθῆ: truth; ἀληθέα, ‘true things,’
τοὺς νόμους: acc. subject
σκόπει: σκόπεε, sg. imperative
φαῖεν ἂν: would…; 3p potential opt. φημί
ταῦτα ἀληθῆ λέγομεν: we speak these things true; ἀληθῆ is a predicative acc.
ὅτι: (namely) that…; in apposition to ταῦτα
δίκαια: just things, right things; neuter pl. substantives
δρᾶν: inf. δράω
ἐκθρέψαντες: aor. pple. ἐκτρέφω
μεταδόντες: aor. pple μεταδίδωμι
ἁμάντων…καλῶν: all fine things; partitive gen. obj. of μεταδίδωμι
ὧν (μεταδιδόναι): which…; gen. relative is partitive gen. object of missing inf., the complementary inf. of οἷοί τ ᾿ ἦμεν
οἷοι τ ᾿ ἧμεν: ὅιος τε εἰμί ‘is the sort to be’ is translated ‘to be able,’ here impf.
σοὶ καὶ...πολίταις: dat. ind. object of pple
τῷ…πεποιηκέναι: by creating…; dat. sg. of means, articular inf. (pf. act. ποιέω)
Ἀθηναίων: partitive with βουλομένῳ
τῷ βουλομένῳ: to the one wishing

Some Common Uses of ὡς (2988-3001)

1. Exclamatory: ὡς ἡδέως How sweetly…! 43b5, also 43b8, 45a7, 53d4
2. Relative: ὥσπερ νυνδὴ ἐγὼ ἔλεγον just as I just now said 46d9, + 7 other times
3. Alleged cause (+ pple): ὡς οἷος τ ᾿ ὤν since/on the grounds of being able 44c1, 50c4…
4. Purpose (+ fut. pple): ὡς ἀκούσων so as about to hear à (in order) to hear
5. Superlatives: ὡς ἥδιστα as sweetly as possible 43b6
6. Result: ὥστε σε…λυπεῖν so that you grieve… 45c4, also 6 times
7. Temporal: ὡς εἰσῆλθεν when/after (the legal case) entered… 45e3
8. Indirect Statement: λέγων…ὡς χρὴ saying…that/how it is necessary 48e3

Page 094δοκιμασθῇ: he was tested into manhood; 3s aor. pass. subjunctive; young men were scrutinized before they were allowed to enter adult political life
ἴδῃ: he saw; 3s aor. subj. ὁράω
τὰ....πράγματα: the affairs
: whomever…; relative, dat. object of ἀρέσκω, pres. subj. + ἄν in a general relative clause
ἐξεῖναι: it is possible; inf. ἔξεστιν
λάβοντα: that (he) taking…; aor. pple λαμβάνω, acc. modifying missing acc. subject of ἀπιέναι
τὰ αὑτοῦ: his own goods; ἑαυτοῦ, a 3rd person reflexive pronoun
ἀπιέναι: inf. ἀπέρχομαι
ὅποι: to wherever…; relative, dat. object pres. subj. + ἄν in a general relative clause
ἐάντε…ἐάντε: whether…or
ἰέναι: inf. ἔρχομαι
μετοικεῖν: supply τις βούληται
ἐλθών: nom. sg. aor. pple ἔρχομαι
ὅποι: see above
τὰ αὑτοῦ: ἑαυτοῦ, reflexive, see above
ὃς δ ᾿ ἂν: and whoever…; general relative clause (relative + ἄν + pres. subj.)
ὁρῶν: ὁράων, nom. pres. pple ὁράω
ὃν τρόπον: in what way; acc. of respect
δίκας δικάζομεν: we make judgments
τἆλλα: crasis, τὰ ἄλλα
φαμὲν: 1p pres. φημί
ὡμολογηκέναι: pf. inf. ὁμολογέω
ἔργῳ: by his action(s) ; dat. of means
ἡμῖν: with us; dat. association with inf.
τὸν…πειθόμενον: and that the one not persuading; acc. subject; the use of μὴ makes the pple condition in sense “that one, if not persuading…”
Page 095φαμεν: 1p φημί
ὅτι…ὅτι…ὅτι: because..because…because
γεννηταῖς οὖσιν: dat. pl. pple εἰμί modifies ἡμῖν; γεννηταῖς is predicate
τροφεῦσι: dat. pl. parallel to γεννηταῖς; supply οὖσιν ἡμῖν…πείθεται λαμβάνω, acc. modifying missing acc. subject of ἀπιέναι
πείσεσθαι: fut. mid. πείθω
προτιθέντων. . . ἐπιτατόντων…ἀλλὰ ἐφιέντων: although…but…; gen. abs. concessive in force with ἡμῶν
ἃ ἂν κελεύωμεν: whatever…; ἄν + 1p subj. in a general relative clause, κελεύω
δυοῖν θάτερα: one of two (options); τὰ ἕτερα, crasis, neut. acc. pl. often translates as one of a set or pair; dual genitive
ταύταις δή: to exactly these; modifies αἰτίαις, ‘charges’ below; dat. pl. of compound verb
καὶ: in fact; adverbial
ἐνέξεσθαι: will be liable; ‘will be held in’ fut. pass. inf. ἐνέχω
εἴπερ ποιήσεις: protasis in a emotional fut. condition (εἰ fut., fut.); the future ind. is used instead of ἄν + subj. (future more vivid) to suggest something undesired
ἥκιστα: the least; superlative adverb
Ἀθηναίων: partitive gen.
ἐν τοῖς: among those; demonstrative; see also 43c7 and below (S1099)
εἴποιμι: 1s opt., protasis in a future less vivid condition (εἰ opt.., ἄν opt.) (should, would)
διὰ τί δή: why exactly? ; “on account of exactly what”
ἄν…καθάπτοιντο: they would accost; i.e. attack, but not physically; + partitive gen.;
ἐν τοῖς: among those; demonstrative; see also above and 43c7 (S1099)
Ἀθηναίων: partitive gen.
ὡμολογηκὼς: nom. sg. masc. pf. act. pple. ὁμολογέω
Page 096τυγχάνω: I happen; + complementary pple and, in this instance, a cognate acc.
φαῖεν ἂν: 3p potential opt. φημί
ὅτι: that…; one expects indirect statement but what follows is direct speech
ἡμῖν…ἐστιν: we have; ‘there is to us,’ dat. of possession
ὅτι: (namely) that…; in apposition
καὶ...καὶ: both…and
ἄν…ἐπεδήμεις εἰ…ἤρεσκεν: you would live …if (the city) were pleasing; present contrafactual (were, would) condition (εἰ + impf. ind., ἄν + impf. ind.)
ἐν αὐτῇ: i.e. in the city, fem. πόλις
καὶ οὔτ ᾿…οὔτε: and neither…nor
ἐπὶ θεωρίαν: for…; expressing purpose
οὐδὲ...οὐδὲ: neither…nor
ἐπιθυμία….εἰδέναι: desire to know…; + gen.; ‘desire of…. to know,’ epexegetical (explanatory) inf. οἶδα is equivalent to an acc. of respect (desire of….in respect to knowing); the genitives are grammatically the object of ἐπιθυμία but are logically the object of εἰδέναι.
ἔλαβεν: aor. λαμβάνω

Dative of Manner (1527)
Otherwise called the adverbial dative, this dative is often translated with the preposition “in” or “with.”

σιγῇ in silence (silently) 43b1
παντὶ τρόπῳ in every way 46a7, 49b5
κοινῇ in common 48d8
οὐδενὶ τρόπῳ in no way 49a3
τινὶ...τρόπῳ in some way 49a5

Some dative of manner constructions are adjectives with a missing noun, likely the fem. ὁδῷ, “way.”

ταύτῃ in this (way) 43d7, 47b9, 48a8, 52e2
πῃ in some (way) (somehow) 48d8
in what (way) 49a1
πῃ ἄλλῃ in some other (way) 4,90E+02

Page 097ἦμεν: 1p impf. εἰμί
ᾑροῦ: ε-αἱρε(σ)ο, 2s impf. mid.; αἱρέω in the middle means ‘choose’
ὡμολόγεις: 2s impf.
καθ ᾿ ἡμᾶς: among us
τά τε ἄλλα καὶ: especially; ‘both in other respects and,’ acc. of respect
ἐν αὐτῇ: i.e. in the city
ἐποιήσω: ἐποιήσα(σ)ο, 2s aor. mid
ὡς: on the grounds that…; i.e. ‘since’ pple expresses alleged cause
δίκῃ: trial
ἐξῆν: 3s impf. ἔξεστι
φυγῆς τιμήσασθαι: to offer (the penalty) of flight; i.e. ‘exile,’ aor. inf. governs a gen. of price; in the penalty phase of a trial both the prosecutor and defendant offered penalties and the jury chose
ἐβούλου: ἐβούλε(σ)ο, 2s impf. mid
ἀκούσης…πόλεως: gen. absolute
ἑκούσης…(πόλεως): gen. abs., add noun
ποιῆσαι: aor. inf. supply impf. ἐξῆν
ἐκαλλωπίζου: you showed off; i.e. put on airs; 2s impf. mid., ἐκαλλωπίζε(σ)ο
ὡς…ἀγανακτῶν: on the grounds that…; ὡς + pple (nom. sg. pres. pple)
δέοι: it was necessary; opt. δεῖ replaces and ind. in secondary sequence
τεθνάναι: θνήσκω
ᾑροῦ: ε-αἱρε(σ)ο, 2s impf. mid.;
ἔφησθα: 2s impf. φημί
πρὸ: in place of
αἰσχύνῃ: αἰσχύνε(σ)αι, 2s pres. mid.
ἐντρέπῃ: ἐντρέπε(σ)αι, 2s pres. mid.
διαφθεῖραι: aor inf. διαφθείρω
ἅπερ ἂν: whatever…; opt. replaces subj. in a general relative clause in secondary seq.
Page 098παρὰ: contrary to…
καθ ᾿ ἃς: according to which; κατά
συνέθου: συνέθε(σ)ο, 2s aor. mid. συντίθημι
πρῶτον: adverbial acc.
ἀπόκριναι: aor. imperative. ἀποκρίνομαι
τοῦτ ᾿ αὐτὸ: this very thing; intensive
ἀπόκριναι: aor. inf. ἀποκρίνομαι
ἀληθῆ: truth; ἀληθέα, ‘true things,’
ὡμολογηκέναι: pf. inf. ὁμολογέω
ἔργῳ…λόγῳ: in action but not in speech; dat. of respect
φῶμεν: are we to say; deliberative subj.
πρὸς: in reply to
ἄλλο τί ἤ: is it anything else than?; (2652)
ὁμολογῶμεν: are we to agree; 1p deliberative subjunctive
ἀνάγκη: (it is) necessary
ἄλλο τί…ἤ: is it anything else than?
ἂν φαῖεν: would say; 3p potential opt. φημί
πρὸς ἡμᾶς αὐτοὺς: between us ourselves
ὑπὸ: out of…; gen. of cause
ἀπατηθεὶς: nom. sg aor. pass. pple
ἀναγκασθεὶς: nom. sg aor. pass. pple
ἔτεσιν: dat. pl. ἔτος
ἐν οἷς: in which
ἐξῆν: 3s impf. ἔξεστι

Verbs Beginning with Vowels in the Perfect Tense (442)
These verbs do not have a reduplicated consonant in the pf. stem. Instead, a short vowel is lengthened or a long vowel is augmented. εὐ-ερετέω can be found with or, as below, without the lengthening.

ἀφῖξαι have arrived (ἀφ-ικνέομαι) 43a1, 43c4, 49c9
εὐεργέτηται has been done (εὐ-ερετέω) 43a8
ὡμολογητο had agreed (ὁμολογέω) 50c5
ὡμολογηκέναι to have agreed 51e3, 52d4
ὡμολογηκὼς having agreed 52a7
ὡμολογημένοις having been agreed 53a6
ἠδικημένος having been wronged (ἀδικέω) 54b8

Page 099ἀπιέναι: inf. ἀπ-έρχομαι
ἐφαίνοντο: did seem; + inf. εἰμί
προῃροῦ: προ-ε-αιρε(σ)ο, 2s impf. mid. προαιρέω
ἃς: which very (cities) ;
φῂς: 2s pres. φημί
πόλεων: gen. pl. πόλις
ἐλάττω…ἢ: less…than; ἐλάττο(ν)α, adv. accusative
τῶν…Ἀθηναίων: of…; partitive gen.
δῆλον ὅτι: clearly; ‘(it is) clear that’
τίνι: to whom…; interrogative
ἂν…ἀρέσκοι: would…; potential opt.
νῦν δὲ δὴ: but just now; δή modifies νῦν
ὡμολογημένοις: pf. pass. pple ὁμολογέω
ἐὰν…πείθῃ…ἔσῃ: fut. more vivid condition (ἐάν + subj., fut. ind.); 2s subj. and 2nd sg. fut. deponent εἰμί (ἔσε(σ)αι)
ἐξελθών: nom. sg. aor. pple ἐξέρχομαι

Synopsis Overview: παύω, παύσω, ἔπαυσα, πέπαυκα, πέπαυμαι, ἐπαύθην

Active Middle Passive
Pres. παύω I stop X παύομαι I stop παύομαι I am (being) stopped
Impf. ἔπαυον I was stopping X ἐπαύομην I was stopping ἐπαύομην I was being stopped
Fut. παύσω I will stop X παύσομαι I will stop παυθήσομαι I will be stopped
Aor. ἔπαυσα I stopped X ἐπαύσαμην I stopped ἐπαύθην I was stopped
Pf. πέπαυκα I have stopped X πέπαυμαι I have stopped πέπαυμαι I have been stopped
Plpf. ἐπεπαύκη I had stopped X ἑπεπαύμην I had stopped ἑπεπαύμην I had been stopped

Page 100σκόπει…δὴ: σκόπεε, sg. imperative; δὴ emphasizes the imperative
παραβὰς: nom sg aor pple παρα-βαίνω,
τί ἀγαθὸν: what good…;
ἐργάσῃ: ἐργάσε(σ)αι, 2s fut. mid.
: or…; joining acc. objects
ὅτι…δῆλον: (it is) clear that…; ‘that…(is) clear’
κινδυνεύσουσι: will run the risk + inf.; or will probably’ + inf.
στερηθῆναι: to be deprived…; aor. pass. inf. στερέω
τῆς πόλεως: from…; gen. separation, gen. sg. of πόλις
ἀπολέσαι: aor. inf. ἀπ-όλλυμι
σχεδὸν...τι: almost, pretty much
αὐτὸς: (you) yourself; intensive modifies the 2s subject ἔλθῃς
πρῶτον: adverbial accusative
ἐὰν…ἔλθῃς,…ἥξεις: future more vivid condition (ἐάν + subj., fut. ind.)
εἰς…τινα: to one…; acc. sg. object
τῶν ἐγγύτατα…πόλεων: of the very close cities; superlative adverb behaving as an adj. in the attributive position (S1096)
ἔλθῃς: 2nd aor. subj. ἔρχομαι
πολέμιος: as an enemy
ἥξεις: 2s fut. ἥκω
τῇ…πολιτείᾳ: dat. obj. of πολέμιος
αὑτῶν: their own; ἑαυτῶν, 3rd person reflexive pronoun
σε διαφθορέα: you (to be) corrupter…
τοῖς δικασταῖς: for…; dat. of interest
ὥστε δοκεῖν: so as to seem…; result cl.
Page 101δικάσαι: aor. inf. δικάζω
ὅστις: whoever…; antecedent is missing; relative clause ends with ἐστιν
δόξειεν ἂν: would…;aor. potential opt.
εἶναι: inf. εἰμί, διαφθορεὺς is predicate
πότερον…ἢ…ἤ: ….or…? or…?; leave πότερον untranslated
φεύξῃ: φεύξε(σ)αι; 2s fut. mid.
τῶν ἀνδρῶν: partitive gen.
κοσμιωτάτους: superlative adj.
ποιοῦντι: dat. sg. pple ποιέω modifies the dat. sg. σοι
ἄξιόν: worthwhile; neut. sg. nom. pred.
ζῆν: living; infinitive subject. ζάω
ἔσται: fut. dep. εἰμί
τίνας λόγους…ἤ: what (sort of) conversations…
οὕσπερ ἐνθάδε: or just as here; ‘or (the conversations) which (you had) here’
ὡς: (namely) that…; in apposition
πλείστου: of very much; gen. of value with ἄξιον
ἄξιον: (are) worth; predicate of pl. subjects; supply linking verb
οἴει: 2s pres. οἴομαι
φανεῖσθαι: fut. mid. φαίνομαι
τὸ...πρᾶγμα: the business, the situation
γε: yes, certainly; in replies, affirmative; cf. 54b1
ἀπαιρεῖς: 2s fut. ἀπ-αείρω
ἥξεις: fut. ἥκω
Page 102παρὰ: to (the side of); + place to which
γὰρ δὴ: for of course, for indeed (S2820, D243), δὴ emphasizes γάρ
ἀκούοιεν ἂν: would…; 3p aor. potential opt. ἀκούω
ὡς γελοίως: how laughably…, how ridiculously
σκευήν: a disguise; used elsewhere for the costume of an actor or chorus
περιθέμενος: aor. mid. περι-τίθημαι relative clause ends with ἐστιν
ἢ διαφθέραν…ἢ ἄλλα: either…or; in apposition to σκευήν
λαβὼν: nom. sg. aor. pple λαμβάνω
οἷα δὴ: exactly which things…; relative
εἰώθασιν: 3p pf. ἔθω, present in sense
μεταλλάξας: nom. sg. aor. pple
ὅτι: that…; obj. of ἐρεῖ below
σμικροῦ…ὄντος: gen. abs., pple. εἰμί
τῷ βίῳ: in (respect to) life; dat. of respect
ὡς τὸ εἰκός: as is likely
ζῆν: inf. ζάω
παραβάς: nom. sg. aor. pple
οὐδεὶς: (there is) no one
ἐρεῖ: fut. of. λέγω (ἐρέω)
ἂν…λυπῇς: if you do not bring pain to…; ἄν is an alternative to ἐὰν; pres. subj. as the protasis in a fut. more vivid condition
ἀκούσῃ: ἀκούσε(σ)αι, 2s fut. middle
Page 103: (other) than…
ὥσπερ: as if
ἐπὶ...: for…; expressing a goal or purpose
ἀποδεδημηκὼς: nom. sg. pf. pple
ἡμῖν ἔσονται: we will have…; lit. ‘are for us’ dat. of possession, 3p fut. εἰμί
ἀλλὰ δὴ: but actually, but in fact
τῶν παίδων: object of ἕνεκα
βούλει: βούλε(σ)αι, 2s pres.
ζῆν: inf. ζάω
ἵνα: so that…; purpose governs the subj., here aor. ἐκτρέφω, παιδεύω
τί δέ: what then?
ἀγαγὼν: nom. sg. 2nd aor. pple ἄγω
θρέψεις: from τρέφω
ποιήσας: making (your children)…
ἵνα: see line 2; governs 3p subj. here; the children are subject; tone is sarcastic
καὶ: also; adverbial
τοῦτο μὲν οὔ: (will you) not (do) this
αὐτοῦ: here; adverb
σοῦ ζῶντος: if…; gen. abs. which is conditional in force, cf. line 6 below
βέλτιον: comparative adverb
θρέψονται: fut. pass. τρέφω
μὴ...αὐτοῖς: if not.. ; gen. abs., μὴ suggests the abs. is conditional in force; pple σύνειμι + dat. of compound verb or dat. of association (S1523)
οἱ σοὶ: your; σοὶ is in the attributive position following the article οἱ
αὐτῶν: them; i.e. Socrates’ children; the gen. object of ἐπιμελήσονται, which can govern a dative or a genitive object
πότερον…ἢ: ….or…?; introduces two options, leave πότερον untranslated
Page 104ἀποδημήσῃς, ἐπιμελήσονται: future more vivid condition (ἐάν + subj., fut. ind.); here an aorist subj.
εἰς Ἅιδου: to Hades’ (house) ; the gen. with missing acc. is common
οὐχὶ: not; the deictic iota intensifies the negation
εἴ…ἐστιν: if they are good for anything; lit. ‘if their use is anything,’ αὐτῶν is subjective gen. of ὄφελος (if they profit Socrates)
εἴπερ γέ: yes, if at least…; ge is both affirmative and restrictive (D132)
φασκόντων: being accustomed to claim; infix σκ suggests that the action is habitual
γε: yes, certainly; in replies, affirmative; cf. 53d1
περὶ πλείονος ποιοῦ: consider…of more (importance) ; gen. of value (S1373); ποιε(σ)ο, pres. mid. imperative
τὸ ξῆν: articular inf. ζάω
ἵνα..ἔχῃς: so that…may... ; purpose + subj.
εἰς Ἅιδου: to Hades’ (house) ; see a8
ἐλθὼν: nom. sg. aor. pple ἔρχομαι
ἄρχουσιν: ruling; dat. pl. pple ἄρχω
φαίνεται: (it) appears…
εἶναι: inf. εἰμί
ἄλλῳ…οὐδενί: to anyone else; in light of the double negative, translate positively
τῶν σῶν: of your (friends) ; gen. pl. σός
ἀφικομένῳ: to (anyone)... ; supply a noun
ἠδικημένος: pf. pass. pple ἀδικέω; note long ἠ pple even though form is a pple, in the pf., verbs that begin with vowels lengthen the vowel instead of duplicating the consonant (S557, 575)
ἄπει: 2s fut. ἀπ-έρχομαι (ἄπ-ειμι)
Page 105ἐὰν ἀπίῃς: 2s pres. subjunctive. ἀπ-έρχομαι (ἄπ-ειμι) in a future more vivid condition (ἐάν + subj., fut. ind.)
ὑφ ᾿…: by…; gen. of agent governed by ἡδικόμενος
ἐὰν ἐξέλθης: 2s aor. subjunctive. ἐξ-έρχομαι in a future more vivid condition (ἐάν + subj., fut. ind.)
πρὸς ἡμᾶς: with us; ‘with regard to us’ in the attritutive position with συνθήκας
παραβὰς: nom. sg. aor. pple
κακὰ: neut. pl. acc. object
ἐργασάμενος: governs a double accusative
οὓς: whom…; relative, acc. pl.
ἥκιστα: superlative adv.
ἔδει: impf. δεῖ
χαλεπανοῦμεν: χαλεπανέομεν, future
ζῶντι: dat. sg. pres. pple
ἐν Ἅιδου: in Hades’ (house)
εἰδότες: pple οἶδα
ἀπολέσαι: aor. inf. ἀπ-όλλυμι
τὸν σὸν μέρος: on your part; acc. respect
μή…πείσῃ: do not let... ; prohibitive aor. subj., 3s πείθω
ἴσθι: sg. imperative οἶδα
ταῦτα: neut. pl. acc. object ἀκούειν
Page 106τῶν αὐλῶν: gen. object of ἀκούειν
ἐν ἐμοὶ: in me
αὕτη: this; fem. nom. sg. οὗτος
ποιεῖ: make it, bring it about; 3s
μὴ δύνασθαι…: so as not to be able…; negative result clause (positive ὥστε)
τῶν ἄλλων: gen. object of ἀκούειν
ἴσθι: sg. imperative οἶδα
ὅσα γε…δοκοῦντα: so far as things (are) seeming now to me; ὂσα is adverbial, and γε is restrictive; cf. 46e3
ἐὰν λέγῃς…ἐρεῖς: future more vivid condition (ἐάν + subj., fut. ind.): 2s pres. subjunctive and fut. λέγω (ἐρέω)
οἴει: 2s pres. οἴομαι
ποιήσειν: (that you) will do; supply σέ as acc. subject
ἔχω: I am able; as often with an infinitive
ἔα: sg. imperative ἐάω
πράττωμεν: let us…; hortatory subj.
ταύτῃ: in this way